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Review Articles
  • A review: crystalline silicon membranes over sealed cavities for pressure sensors by using silicon migration technology

    Jiale Su, Xinwei Zhang, Guoping Zhou, Changfeng Xia, Wuqing Zhou, Qing'an Huang

    J. Semicond.. 2018, 39 (7): 071005

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    A silicon pressure sensor is one of the very first MEMS components appearing in the microsystem area. The market for the MEMS pressure sensor is rapidly growing due to consumer electronic applications in recent years. Requirements of the pressure sensors with low cost, low power consumption and high accuracy drive one to develop a novel technology. This paper first overviews the historical development of the absolute pressure sensor briefly. It then reviews the state of the art technology for fabricating crystalline silicon membranes over sealed cavities by using the silicon migration technology in detail. By using only one lithographic step, the membranes defined in lateral and vertical dimensions can be realized by the technology. Finally, applications of MEMS through using the silicon migration technology are summarized.

  • Concept and design of super junction devices

    Bo Zhang, Wentong Zhang, Ming Qiao, Zhenya Zhan, Zhaoji Li

    J. Semicond.. 2018, 39 (2): 021001

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    The super junction (SJ) has been recognized as the " milestone” of the power MOSFET, which is the most important innovation concept of the voltage-sustaining layer (VSL). The basic structure of the SJ is a typical junction-type VSL (J-VSL) with the periodic N and P regions. However, the conventional VSL is a typical resistance-type VSL (R-VSL) with only an N or P region. It is a qualitative change of the VSL from the R-VSL to the J-VSL, introducing the bulk depletion to increase the doping concentration and optimize the bulk electric field of the SJ. This paper firstly summarizes the development of the SJ, and then the optimization theory of the SJ is discussed for both the vertical and the lateral devices, including the non-full depletion mode, the minimum specific on-resistance optimization method and the equivalent substrate model. The SJ concept breaks the conventional " silicon limit” relationship of RonVB2.5, showing a quasi-linear relationship of RonVB1.03.

  • InP-based monolithically integrated few-mode devices

    Dan Lu, Yiming He, Zhaosong Li, Lingjuan Zhao, Wei Wang

    J. Semicond.. 2018, 39 (10): 101001

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    Mode-division multiplexing (MDM) has become an increasingly important technology to further increase the transmission capacity of both optical-fiber-based communication networks, data centers and waveguide-based on-chip optical interconnects. Mode manipulation devices are indispensable in MDM system and have been widely studied in fiber, planar lightwave circuits, and silicon and InP based platforms. InP-based integration technology provides the easiest accessibility to bring together the functions of laser sources, modulators, and mode manipulation devices into a single chip, making it a promising solution for fully integrated few-mode transmitters in the MDM system. This paper reviews the recent progress in InP-based mode manipulation devices, including the few-mode converters, multiplexers, demultiplexers, and transmitters. The working principle, structures, and performance of InP-based few-mode devices are discussed.

  • Resistive random access memory and its applications in storage and nonvolatile logic

    Dongbin Zhu, Yi Li, Wensheng Shen, Zheng Zhou, Lifeng Liu, Xing Zhang

    J. Semicond.. 2017, 38 (7): 071002

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    The resistive random access memory (RRAM) device has been widely studied due to its excellent memory characteristics and great application potential in different fields. In this paper, resistive switching materials, switching mechanism, and memory characteristics of RRAM are discussed. Recent research progress of RRAM in high-density storage and nonvolatile logic application are addressed. Technological trends are also discussed.

  • High-speed photodetectors in optical communication system

    Zeping Zhao, Jianguo Liu, Yu Liu, Ninghua Zhu

    J. Semicond.. 2017, 38 (12): 121001

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    This paper presents a review and discussion for high-speed photodetectors and their applications on optical communications and microwave photonics. A detailed and comprehensive demonstration of high-speed photodetectors from development history, research hotspots to packaging technologies is provided to the best of our knowledge. A few typical applications based on photodetectors are also illustrated, such as free-space optical communications, radio over fiber and millimeter terahertz signal generation systems.

  • Field-effect transistor memories based on ferroelectric polymers

    Yujia Zhang, Haiyang Wang, Lei Zhang, Xiaomeng Chen, Yu Guo, Huabin Sun, Yun Li

    J. Semicond.. 2017, 38 (11): 111001

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    Field-effect transistors based on ferroelectrics have attracted intensive interests, because of their non-volatile data retention, rewritability, and non-destructive read-out. In particular, polymeric materials that possess ferroelectric properties are promising for the fabrications of memory devices with high performance, low cost, and large-area manufacturing, by virtue of their good solubility, low-temperature processability, and good chemical stability. In this review, we discuss the material characteristics of ferroelectric polymers, providing an update on the current development of ferroelectric field-effect transistors (Fe-FETs) in non-volatile memory applications.

  • Photodetectors based on two dimensional materials

    Zheng Lou, Zhongzhu Liang, Guozhen Shen

    J. Semicond.. 2016, 37 (9): 091001

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    Two-dimensional (2D) materials with unique properties have received a great deal of attention in recent years. This family of materials has rapidly established themselves as intriguing building blocks for versatile nanoelectronic devices that offer promising potential for use in next generation optoelectronics, such as photodetectors. Furthermore, their optoelectronic performance can be adjusted by varying the number of layers. They have demonstrated excellent light absorption, enabling ultrafast and ultrasensitive detection of light in photodetectors, especially in their single-layer structure. Moreover, due to their atomic thickness, outstanding mechanical flexibility, and large breaking strength, these materials have been of great interest for use in flexible devices and strain engineering. Toward that end, several kinds of photodetectors based on 2D materials have been reported. Here, we present a review of the state-of-the-art in photodetectors based on graphene and other 2D materials, such as the graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, and so on.

  • Research progress of Si-based germanium materials and devices

    Buwen Cheng, Cheng Li, Zhi Liu, Chunlai Xue

    J. Semicond.. 2016, 37 (8): 081001

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    Si-based germanium is considered to be a promising platform for the integration of electronic and photonic devices due to its high carrier mobility, good optical properties, and compatibility with Si CMOS technology. However, some great challenges have to be confronted, such as: (1) the nature of indirect band gap of Ge; (2) the epitaxy of dislocation-free Ge layers on Si substrate; and (3) the immature technology for Ge devices. The aim of this paper is to give a review of the recent progress made in the field of epitaxy and optical properties of Ge heterostructures on Si substrate, as well as some key technologies on Ge devices. High crystal quality Ge epilayers, as well as Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells with high Ge content, were successfully grown on Si substrate with a low-temperature Ge buffer layer. A local Ge condensation technique was proposed to prepare germanium-on-insulator (GOI) materials with high tensile strain for enhanced Ge direct band photoluminescence. The advances in formation of Ge n+p shallow junctions and the modulation of Schottky barrier height of metal/Ge contacts were a significant progress in Ge technology. Finally, the progress of Si-based Ge light emitters, photodetectors, and MOSFETs was briefly introduced. These results show that Si-based Ge heterostructure materials are promising for use in the next-generation of integrated circuits and optoelectronic circuits.

  • CMOS mm-wave transceivers for Gbps wireless communication

    Baoyong Chi, Zheng Song, Lixue Kuang, Haikun Jia, Xiangyu Meng, Zhihua Wang

    J. Semicond.. 2016, 37 (7): 071001

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    The challenges in the design of CMOS millimeter-wave (mm-wave) transceiver for Gbps wireless communication are discussed. To support the Gbps data rate, the link bandwidth of the receiver/transmitter must be wide enough, which puts a lot of pressure on the mm-wave front-end as well as on the baseband circuit. This paper discusses the effects of the limited link bandwidth on the transceiver system performance and overviews the bandwidth expansion techniques for mm-wave amplifiers and IF programmable gain amplifier. Furthermore, dual-mode power amplifier (PA) and self-healing technique are introduced to improve the PA's average efficiency and to deal with the process, voltage, and temperature variation issue, respectively. Several fully-integrated CMOS mm-wave transceivers are also presented to give a short overview on the state-of-the-art mm-wave transceivers.

  • Advances and prospects in nitrides based light-emitting-diodes

    Jinmin Li, Zhe Liu, Zhiqiang Liu, Jianchang Yan, Tongbo Wei, Xiaoyan Yi, Junxi Wang

    J. Semicond.. 2016, 37 (6): 061001

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    Due to their low power consumption, long lifetime and high efficiency, nitrides based white light-emitting-diodes (LEDs) have long been considered to be a promising technology for next generation illumination. In this work, we provide a brief review of the development of GaN based LEDs. Some pioneering and significant experiment results of our group and the overview of the recent progress in this field are presented. We hope it can provide some meaningful information for the development of high efficiency GaN based LEDs and solid-state-lighting.

  • Recent advances in optoelectronic properties and applications of two-dimensional metal chalcogenides

    Congxin Xia, Jingbo Li

    J. Semicond.. 2016, 37 (5): 051001

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    Since two-dimensional (2D) graphene was fabricated successfully, many kinds of graphene-like 2D materials have attracted extensive attention. Among them, the studies of 2D metal chalcogenides have become the focus of intense research due to their unique physical properties and promising applications. Here, we review significant recent advances in optoelectronic properties and applications of 2D metal chalcogenides. This review highlights the recent progress of synthesis, characterization and isolation of single and few layer metal chalcogenides nanosheets. Moreover, we also focus on the recent important progress of electronic, optical properties and optoelectronic devices of 2D metal chalcogenides. Additionally, the theoretical model and understanding on the band structures, optical properties and related physical mechanism are also reviewed. Finally, we give some personal perspectives on potential research problems in the optoelectronic characteristics of 2D metal chalcogenides and related device applications.

  • Fabrication techniques and applications of flexible graphene-based electronic devices

    Luqi Tao, Danyang Wang, Song Jiang, Ying Liu, Qianyi Xie, He Tian, Ningqin Deng, Xuefeng Wang, Yi Yang, Tianling Ren

    J. Semicond.. 2016, 37 (4): 041001

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    In recent years, flexible electronic devices have become a hot topic of scientific research. These flexible devices are the basis of flexible circuits, flexible batteries, flexible displays and electronic skins. Graphene-based materials are very promising for flexible electronic devices, due to their high mobility, high elasticity, a tunable band gap, quantum electronic transport and high mechanical strength. In this article, we review the recent progress of the fabrication process and the applications of graphene-based electronic devices, including thermal acoustic devices, thermal rectifiers, graphene-based nanogenerators, pressure sensors and graphene-based light-emitting diodes. In summary, although there are still a lot of challenges needing to be solved, graphene-based materials are very promising for various flexible device applications in the future.

  • High-quality ZnO growth, doping, and polarization effect

    Kun Tang, Shulin Gu, Jiandong Ye, Shunming Zhu, Rong Zhang, Youdou Zheng

    J. Semicond.. 2016, 37 (3): 031001

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    The authors have reported their recent progress in the research field of ZnO materials as well as the corresponding global advance. Recent results regarding(1) the development of high-quality epitaxy techniques,(2) the defect physics and the Te/N co-doping mechanism for p-type conduction, and(3) the design, realization, and properties of the ZnMgO/ZnO hetero-structures have been shown and discussed. A complete technology of the growth of high-quality ZnO epi-films and nano-crystals has been developed. The co-doping of N plus an iso-valent element to oxygen has been found to be the most hopeful path to overcome the notorious p-type hurdle. High mobility electrons have been observed in low-dimensional structures utilizing the polarization of ZnMgO and ZnO. Very different properties as well as new physics of the electrons in 2DEG and 3DES have been found as compared to the electrons in the bulk.

  • Surface acoustic wave devices for sensor applications

    Bo Liu, Xiao Chen, Hualin Cai, Mohammad Ali Mohammad, Xiangguang Tian, Luqi Tao, Yi Yang, Tianling Ren

    J. Semicond.. 2016, 37 (2): 021001

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    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices have been widely used in different fields and will continue to be of great importance in the foreseeable future. These devices are compact, cost efficient, easy to fabricate, and have a high performance, among other advantages. SAW devices can work as filters, signal processing units, sensors and actuators. They can even work without batteries and operate under harsh environments. In this review, the operating principles of SAW sensors, including temperature sensors, pressure sensors, humidity sensors and biosensors, will be discussed. Several examples and related issues will be presented. Technological trends and future developments will also be discussed.

  • GaN-based green laser diodes

    Lingrong Jiang, Jianping Liu, Aiqin Tian, Yang Cheng, Zengcheng Li, Liqun Zhang, Shuming Zhang, Deyao Li, M. Ikeda, Hui Yang

    J. Semicond.. 2016, 37 (11): 111001

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    Recently, many groups have focused on the development of GaN-based green LDs to meet the demand for laser display. Great progresses have been achieved in the past few years even that many challenges exist. In this article, we analysis the challenges to develop GaN-based green LDs, and then the approaches to improve the green LD structure in the aspect of crystalline quality, electrical properties, and epitaxial layer structure are reviewed, especially the work we have done.

  • A review:aluminum nitride MEMS contour-mode resonator

    Yunhong Hou, Meng Zhang, Guowei Han, Chaowei Si, Yongmei Zhao, Jin Ning

    J. Semicond.. 2016, 37 (10): 101001

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    Over the past several decades, the technology of micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) has advanced. A clear need of miniaturization and integration of electronics components has had new solutions for the next generation of wireless communications. The aluminum nitride (AlN) MEMS contour-mode resonator (CMR) has emerged and become promising and competitive due to the advantages of the small size, high quality factor and frequency, low resistance, compatibility with integrated circuit (IC) technology, and the ability of integrating multi-frequency devices on a single chip. In this article, a comprehensive review of AlN MEMS CMR technology will be presented, including its basic working principle, main structures, fabrication processes, and methods of performance optimization. Among these, the deposition and etching process of the AlN film will be specially emphasized and recent advances in various performance optimization methods of the CMR will be given through specific examples which are mainly focused on temperature compensation and reducing anchor losses. This review will conclude with an assessment of the challenges and future trends of the CMR.

  • Progress in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor silicon photonics and optoelectronic integrated circuits

    Hongda Chen, Zan Zhang, Beiju Huang, Luhong Mao, Zanyun Zhang

    J. Semicond.. 2015, 36 (12): 121001

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    Silicon photonics is an emerging competitive solution for next-generation scalable data communications in different application areas as high-speed data communication is constrained by electrical interconnects. Optical interconnects based on silicon photonics can be used in intra/inter-chip interconnects, board-to-board interconnects, short-reach communications in datacenters, supercomputers and long-haul optical transmissions. In this paper, we present an overview of recent progress in silicon optoelectronic devices and optoelectronic integrated circuits(OEICs) based on a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor-compatible process, and focus on our research contributions. The silicon optoelectronic devices and OEICs show good characteristics, which are expected to benefit several application domains, including communication, sensing, computing and nonlinear systems.

  • Single event soft error in advanced integrated circuit

    Yuanfu Zhao, Suge Yue, Xinyuan Zhao, Shijin Lu, Qiang Bian, Liang Wang, Yongshu Sun

    J. Semicond.. 2015, 36 (11): 111001

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    As technology feature sizes decrease, single event upset (SEU), and single event transient (SET) dominate the radiation response of microcircuits. Multiple bit upset (MBU) (or multi cell upset) effects, digital single event transient (DSET) and analogue single event transient (ASET) caused serious problems for advanced integrated circuits (ICs) applied in a radiation environment and have become a pressing issue. To face this challenge, a lot of work has been put into the single event soft error mechanism and mitigation schemes. This paper presents a review of SEU and SET, including: a brief historical overview, which summarizes the historical development of the SEU and SET study since their first observation in the 1970's; effects prominent in advanced technology, which reviews the effects such as MBU, MSET as well as SET broadening and quenching with the influence of temperature, device structure etc.; the present understanding of single event soft error mechanisms, which review the basic mechanism of single event generation including various component of charge collection; and a discussion of various SEU and SET mitigation schemes divided as circuit hardening and layout hardening that could help the designer meet his goals.

  • Modeling and simulation of single-event effect in CMOS circuit

    Suge Yue, Xiaolin Zhang, Yuanfu Zhao, Lin Liu

    J. Semicond.. 2015, 36 (11): 111002

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    This paper reviews the status of research in modeling and simulation of single-event effects (SEE) in digital devices and integrated circuits. After introducing a brief historical overview of SEE simulation, different level simulation approaches of SEE are detailed, including material-level physical simulation where two primary methods by which ionizing radiation releases charge in a semiconductor device (direct ionization and indirect ionization) are introduced, device-level simulation where the main emerging physical phenomena affecting nanometer devices (bipolar transistor effect, charge sharing effect) and the methods envisaged for taking them into account are focused on, and circuit-level simulation where the methods for predicting single-event response about the production and propagation of single-event transients (SETs) in sequential and combinatorial logic are detailed, as well as the soft error rate trends with scaling are particularly addressed.

  • Packaging investigation of optoelectronic devices

    Zhike Zhang, Yu Liu, Jianguo Liu, Ninghua Zhu

    J. Semicond.. 2015, 36 (10): 101001

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    Compared with microelectronic packaging, optoelectronic packaging as a new packaging type has been developed rapidly and it will play an essential role in optical communication.In this paper, we try to summarize the development history, research status, technology issues and future prospects, and hope to provide a meaningful reference.

  • In situ TEM/SEM electronic/mechanical characterization of nano material with MEMS chip

    Yuelin Wang, Tie Li, Xiao Zhang, Hongjiang Zeng, Qinhua Jin

    J. Semicond.. 2014, 35 (8): 081001

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    Our investigation of in situ observations on electronic and mechanical properties of nano materials using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM) with the help of traditional micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology has been reviewed. Thanks to the stability, continuity and controllability of the loading force from the electrostatic actuator and the sensitivity of the sensor beam, a MEMS tensile testing chip for accurate tensile testing in the nano scale is obtained. Based on the MEMS chips, the scale effect of Young's modulus in silicon has been studied and confirmed directly in a tensile experiment using a transmission electron microscope. Employing the nanomanipulation technology and FIB technology, Cu and SiC nanowires have been integrated into the tensile testing device and their mechanical, electronic properties under different stress have been achieved, simultaneously. All these will aid in better understanding the nano effects and contribute to the designation and application in nano devices.

  • Solid State Physics View of Liquid State Chemistry Ⅱ. Electrical Capacitance of Pure and Impure Water

    Binbin Jie, Chihtang Sah

    J. Semicond.. 2014, 35 (2): 021001

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    More than 80 years of theories and experiments on water suggested to us, described in our first water-physics report, that pure water's "abnormally" high electrical conductivity is due to transport of positive and negative quasi-protons, p+ and p-, between the neutral proton traps V0 ≡ (H2O)0 in the extended water, [(H2O)N→∞], converting it respectively to positively and negatively charged proton traps, V+ ≡ (H3O)1+ and V- ≡ (HO)1-. In this second report, we present the theoretical charge control capacitances of pure and impure water as a function of the DC electric potential applied to water.

  • Progress in Group III nitride semiconductor electronic devices

    Hao Yue, Zhang Jinfeng, Shen Bo, Liu Xinyu

    J. Semicond.. 2012, 33 (8): 081001

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    Recently there has been a rapid domestic development in group III nitride semiconductor electronic materials and devices. This paper reviews the important progress in GaN-based wide bandgap microelectronic materials and devices in the Key Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China, which focuses on the research of the fundamental physical mechanisms of group III nitride semiconductor electronic materials and devices with the aim to enhance the crystal quality and electric performance of GaN-based electronic materials, develop new GaN heterostructures, and eventually achieve high performance GaN microwave power devices. Some remarkable progresses achieved in the program will be introduced, including those in GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) and metal-oxide-semiconductor high electron mobility transistors (MOSHEMTs) with novel high-k gate insulators, and material growth, defect analysis and material properties of InAlN/GaN heterostructures and HEMT fabrication, and quantum transport and spintronic properties of GaN-based heterostructures, and high-electric-field electron transport properties of GaN material and GaN Gunn devices used in terahertz sources.

  • Review of terahertz semiconductor sources

    Feng Wei

    J. Semicond.. 2012, 33 (3): 031001

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    Terahertz (THz) technology can be used in information science, biology, medicine, astronomy, and environmental science. THz sources are the key devices in THz applications. The author gives a brief review of THz semiconductor sources, such as GaAs1-xNx Gunn-like diodes, quantum wells (QWs) negative-effective-mass (NEM) THz oscillators, and the THz quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). THz current self-oscillation in doped GaAs1-xNx diodes driven by a DC electric field was investigated. The current self-oscillation is associated with the negative differential velocity effect in the highly nonparabolic conduction band of this unique material system. The current self-oscillations and spatiotemporal current patterns in QW NEM p+pp+ diodes was studied by considering scattering contributions from impurities, acoustic phonons, and optic phonons. It is indicated that both the applied bias and the doping concentration strongly influence the patterns and self-oscillating frequencies. The NEM p+pp+ diode may be used as an electrically tunable THz source. Meanwhile, by using the Monte Carlo method, the device parameters of resonant-phonon THz QCLs were optimized. The results show that the calculated gain is more sensitive to the injection barrier width, the doping concentration, and the phonon extraction level separation, which is consistent with the experiments.


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