J. Semicond. > Volume 41?>?Issue 4?> Article Number: 041606

Characteristics and techniques of GaN-based micro-LEDs for application in next-generation display

Zhou Wang , Xinyi Shan , Xugao Cui and Pengfei Tian ,

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Abstract: Due to the excellent optoelectronic properties, fast response time, outstanding power efficiency and high stability, micro-LED plays an increasingly important role in the new generation of display technology compared with LCD and OLED display. This paper mainly introduces the preparation methods of the GaN-based micro-LED array, the optoelectronic characteristics, and several key technologies to achieve full-color display, such as transfer printing, color conversion by quantum dot and local strain engineering.

Key words: micro-LEDGaNfull-color displaytransfer printingcolor conversion

Abstract: Due to the excellent optoelectronic properties, fast response time, outstanding power efficiency and high stability, micro-LED plays an increasingly important role in the new generation of display technology compared with LCD and OLED display. This paper mainly introduces the preparation methods of the GaN-based micro-LED array, the optoelectronic characteristics, and several key technologies to achieve full-color display, such as transfer printing, color conversion by quantum dot and local strain engineering.

Key words: micro-LEDGaNfull-color displaytransfer printingcolor conversion



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Hori A, Yasunaga D, Satake A, et al. Temperature and injection current dependence of electroluminescence intensity in green and blue InGaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diodes. J Appl Phys, 2003, 93, 3152

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Chong W C, Cho W K, Liu Z J, et al. 1700 pixels per inch (PPI) passive-matrix micro-LED display powered by ASIC. 2014 IEEE Compound Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Symposium (CSICS), 2014, 978-1-4799-3622-9

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Fei M Q, Fei Y. The wide view-angle technique of TFT-LCD. Adv Display, 2008, 11, 22

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Trindade A J, Guilhabert B, Xie E Y, et al. Heterogeneous integration of gallium nitride light-emitting diodes on diamond and silica by transfer printing. Opt Express, 2015, 23, 9329

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Han H V, Lin H Y, Lin C C, et al. Resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based micro LED display technology. Opt Express, 2015, 23, 32504

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Chung K, Sui J, Demory B, et al. Color mixing from monolithically integrated InGaN-based light-emitting diodes by local strain engineering. Appl Phys Lett, 2017, 111, 041101

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Jiang F, Zhang J, Xu L, et al. Efficient InGaN-based yellow-light-emitting diodes. Photonics Res, 2019, 7, 144

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Tian P, McKendry J J, Gu E, et al. Fabrication, characterization and applications of flexible vertical InGaN micro-light emitting diode arrays. Opt Express, 2016, 24, 699

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Tian P, McKendry J J D, Herrnsdorf J, et al. Temperature-dependent efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes. Appl Phys Lett, 2014, 105, 171107

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Gong Z, Jin S, Chen Y, et al. Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes. J Appl Phys, 2010, 107, 013103

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Zhang K, Peng D, Lau K M, et al. Fully-integrated active matrix programmable UV and blue micro-LED display system-on-panel (SoP). J Soc Inf Display, 2017, 25, 240

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Herrnsdorf J, McKendry J J D, Zhang S, et al. Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness. IEEE T Electron Dev, 2015, 62, 1918

[29]

Tull B R, Twu N, Hsu Y J, et al. Micro-LED microdisplays by integration of III–V LEDs with silicon thin film transistors. SID Symp Dig Tech Pap, 2017, 48, 246

[30]

Cao J, Liu X, Khan M A, et al. RGB tricolor produced by white-based top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with microcavity structure. Curr Appl Phys, 2007, 7, 300

[31]

Sato Y, Takahashi N, Sato S. Full-color fluorescent display devices using a near-UV light-emitting diode. Jpn J Appl Phys, 1996, 35, L838

[32]

Kim B H, Nam S, Oh N, et al. Multilayer transfer printing for pixelated, multi-color quantum dot light-emitting diodes. ACS Nano, 2016, 10, 4920

[33]

Lin H Y, Sher C W, Hsieh D H, et al. Optical cross-talk reduction in a quantum-dot-based full-color micro-light-emitting-diode display by a lithographic-fabricated photoresist mold. Photonics Res, 2017, 5, 411

[34]

Liu Z, Chong W C, Wong K M, et al. A novel BLU-free full-color LED projector using LED on silicon micro-displays. IEEE Photonic Tech Lett, 2013, 25, 2267

[35]

Display technology of micro-LED has the most potential application in AR/VR display device [EB/OL]. http://www.51touch.com/lcd/news/dynamic/2017/1031/48607.html

[36]

Color conversion is a feasible way for micro LED display technology to achieve mass production [EB/OL]. http://www.yejibang.com/news-details-23615.html

[1]

Lee H E, Shin J H, Park J H, et al. Micro light-emitting diodes for display and flexible biomedical applications. Adv Funct Mater, 2019, 29, 1808075

[2]

Lee H E, Choi J, Lee S H, et al. Monolithic flexible vertical GaN light-emitting diodes for a transparent wireless brain optical stimulator. Adv Mater, 2018, 30, 1800649

[3]

Yang P, Zhang L, Kang D J, et al. High-resolution inkjet printing of quantum dot light-emitting microdiode arrays. Adv Opt Mater, 2019, 8, 1901429

[4]

Yang W, Zhang S, McKendry J J D, et al. Size-dependent capacitance study on InGaN-based micro-light-emitting diodes. J Appl Phys, 2014, 116, 044512

[5]

Tian P, McKendry J J D, Gong Z, et al. Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates. J Appl Phys, 2014, 115, 033112

[6]

Li Y, Wu Q, Meng F Y, et al. Enhanced performance of large-area vertical light-emitting diodes treated by laser irradiation. Micro Nano Lett, 2017, 12, 369

[7]

Chen X, Kong F, Li K, et al. Study of light extraction efficiency of flip-chip GaN-based LEDs with different periodic arrays. Opt Commun, 2014, 314, 90

[8]

Yao Y C, Hwang J M, Yang Z P, et al. Enhanced external quantum efficiency in GaN-based vertical-type light-emitting diodes by localized surface plasmons. Sci Rep, 2016, 6, 22659

[9]

Liu Z, Chong W C, Wong K M, et al. GaN-based LED micro-displays for wearable applications. Microelectron Eng, 2015, 148, 98

[10]

Lin C C, Fang Y H, Kao M J, et al. Ultra-fine pitch thin-film micro LED display for indoor applications. SID Symp Dig Tech Pap, 2018, 49, 782

[11]

Yoon J K, Park E M, Son J S, et al. The study of picture quality of OLED TV with WRGB OLEDs structure. SID Symp Dig Tech Pap, 2013, 44, 326

[12]

Katsui S, Kobayashi H, Nakagawa T, et al. 5291-PPI organic light-emitting diode display using field-effect transistors including a c-axis aligned crystalline oxide semiconductor. SID Symp Dig Tech Pap, 2019, 50, 311

[13]

Liu Z, Zhang K, Liu Y, et al. Fully multi-functional GaN-based micro-LEDs for 2500 PPI micro-displays, temperature sensing, light energy harvesting, and light detection. 64th IEEE Annual International Electron Devices Meeting, 2018, 871

[14]

JBD exhibits 2000000 nit and 10000 PPI micro-LED displays [EB/OL]. https://www.toutiao.com/i6705923322162446856/

[15]

Santos J M M, Jones B E, Schlosser P J, et al. Hybrid GaN LED with capillary-bonded II–VI MQW color-converting membrane for visible light communications. Semicond Sci Tech, 2015, 30, 035012

[16]

Hori A, Yasunaga D, Satake A, et al. Temperature and injection current dependence of electroluminescence intensity in green and blue InGaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diodes. J Appl Phys, 2003, 93, 3152

[17]

Chong W C, Cho W K, Liu Z J, et al. 1700 pixels per inch (PPI) passive-matrix micro-LED display powered by ASIC. 2014 IEEE Compound Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Symposium (CSICS), 2014, 978-1-4799-3622-9

[18]

Fei M Q, Fei Y. The wide view-angle technique of TFT-LCD. Adv Display, 2008, 11, 22

[19]

Trindade A J, Guilhabert B, Xie E Y, et al. Heterogeneous integration of gallium nitride light-emitting diodes on diamond and silica by transfer printing. Opt Express, 2015, 23, 9329

[20]

Han H V, Lin H Y, Lin C C, et al. Resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based micro LED display technology. Opt Express, 2015, 23, 32504

[21]

Chung K, Sui J, Demory B, et al. Color mixing from monolithically integrated InGaN-based light-emitting diodes by local strain engineering. Appl Phys Lett, 2017, 111, 041101

[22]

Jiang F, Zhang J, Xu L, et al. Efficient InGaN-based yellow-light-emitting diodes. Photonics Res, 2019, 7, 144

[23]

Tian P, McKendry J J, Gu E, et al. Fabrication, characterization and applications of flexible vertical InGaN micro-light emitting diode arrays. Opt Express, 2016, 24, 699

[24]

Tian P, Althumali A, Gu E, et al. Aging characteristics of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes at an extremely high current density of 3.5 kA cm?2. Semicond Sci Tech, 2016, 31, 045005

[25]

Tian P, McKendry J J D, Herrnsdorf J, et al. Temperature-dependent efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes. Appl Phys Lett, 2014, 105, 171107

[26]

Gong Z, Jin S, Chen Y, et al. Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes. J Appl Phys, 2010, 107, 013103

[27]

Zhang K, Peng D, Lau K M, et al. Fully-integrated active matrix programmable UV and blue micro-LED display system-on-panel (SoP). J Soc Inf Display, 2017, 25, 240

[28]

Herrnsdorf J, McKendry J J D, Zhang S, et al. Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness. IEEE T Electron Dev, 2015, 62, 1918

[29]

Tull B R, Twu N, Hsu Y J, et al. Micro-LED microdisplays by integration of III–V LEDs with silicon thin film transistors. SID Symp Dig Tech Pap, 2017, 48, 246

[30]

Cao J, Liu X, Khan M A, et al. RGB tricolor produced by white-based top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with microcavity structure. Curr Appl Phys, 2007, 7, 300

[31]

Sato Y, Takahashi N, Sato S. Full-color fluorescent display devices using a near-UV light-emitting diode. Jpn J Appl Phys, 1996, 35, L838

[32]

Kim B H, Nam S, Oh N, et al. Multilayer transfer printing for pixelated, multi-color quantum dot light-emitting diodes. ACS Nano, 2016, 10, 4920

[33]

Lin H Y, Sher C W, Hsieh D H, et al. Optical cross-talk reduction in a quantum-dot-based full-color micro-light-emitting-diode display by a lithographic-fabricated photoresist mold. Photonics Res, 2017, 5, 411

[34]

Liu Z, Chong W C, Wong K M, et al. A novel BLU-free full-color LED projector using LED on silicon micro-displays. IEEE Photonic Tech Lett, 2013, 25, 2267

[35]

Display technology of micro-LED has the most potential application in AR/VR display device [EB/OL]. http://www.51touch.com/lcd/news/dynamic/2017/1031/48607.html

[36]

Color conversion is a feasible way for micro LED display technology to achieve mass production [EB/OL]. http://www.yejibang.com/news-details-23615.html

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Z Wang, X Y Shan, X G Cui, P F Tian, Characteristics and techniques of GaN-based micro-LEDs for application in next-generation display[J]. J. Semicond., 2020, 41(4): 041606. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/4/041606.

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History

Manuscript received: 21 January 2020 Manuscript revised: 08 February 2020 Online: Accepted Manuscript: 19 February 2020 Uncorrected proof: 04 March 2020 Published: 10 April 2020

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