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Numerical study of mono-crystalline silicon solar cells with passivated emitter and rear contact configuration for the efficiency beyond 24% based on mass production technology

Peng Wang 1, 2, , Gaofei Li 3, , , Miao Wang 3, , Hong Li 3, , Jing Zheng 3, , Liyou Yang 3, , Yigang Chen 1, , Dongdong Li 2, and Linfeng Lu 2, ,

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Abstract: Mono-crystalline silicon solar cells with a passivated emitter rear contact (PERC) configuration have attracted extensive attention from both industry and scientific communities. A record efficiency of 24.06% on p-type silicon wafer and mass production efficiency around 22% have been demonstrated, mainly due to its superior rear side passivation. In this work, the PERC solar cells with a p-type silicon wafer were numerically studied in terms of the surface passivation, quality of silicon wafer and metal electrodes. A rational way to achieve a 24% mass-production efficiency was proposed. Free energy loss analyses were adopted to address the loss sources with respect to the limit efficiency of 29%, which provides a guideline for the design and manufacture of a high-efficiency PERC solar cell.

Key words: monocrystalline silicon solar cellpassivated emitter rear contactnumerical simulationfree energy loss analysis

Abstract: Mono-crystalline silicon solar cells with a passivated emitter rear contact (PERC) configuration have attracted extensive attention from both industry and scientific communities. A record efficiency of 24.06% on p-type silicon wafer and mass production efficiency around 22% have been demonstrated, mainly due to its superior rear side passivation. In this work, the PERC solar cells with a p-type silicon wafer were numerically studied in terms of the surface passivation, quality of silicon wafer and metal electrodes. A rational way to achieve a 24% mass-production efficiency was proposed. Free energy loss analyses were adopted to address the loss sources with respect to the limit efficiency of 29%, which provides a guideline for the design and manufacture of a high-efficiency PERC solar cell.

Key words: monocrystalline silicon solar cellpassivated emitter rear contactnumerical simulationfree energy loss analysis



References:

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Blakers A W, Wang A, Milne A M, et al. 22.8% efficient silicon solar cell. Appl Phys Lett, 1989, 55(13), 1363

[2]

Joonwichien S, Utsunomiya S, Kida Y, et al. Improved rear local contact formation using Al paste containing Si for industrial PERC solar cell. IEEE J Photovolt, 2018, 8(1), 54

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Albadri A M. Characterization of Al2O3 surface passivation of silicon solar cells. TSF, 2014, 562, 451

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Pawlik M, Vilcot J P, Halbwax M, et al. Electrical and chemical studies on Al2O3 passivation activation process. Energy Procedia, 2014, 60, 85

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Inns D, Poplavskyy D. Measurement of metal induced recombination in solar cells. IEEE 42nd Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (PVSC), 2015, 1

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Inns D. Understanding metal induced recombination losses in silicon solar cells with screen printed silver contacts. Energy Procedia, 2016, 98, 23

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Chen N, Ebong A. Towards 20% efficient industrial Al-BSF silicon solar cell with multiple busbars and fine gridlines. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells, 2016, 146, 107

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Urue?a A, John J, Eyben P, et al. Studying local aluminum back surface field (Al-BSF) contacts through scanning spreading resistance microscopy (SSRM). 26th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (EU PVSEC), 2011

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Hallam B, Herguth A, Hamer P, et al. Eliminating light-induced degradation in commercial p-type Czochralski silicon solar cells. Appl Sci, 2018, 8(1), 10

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Herguth A, Hahn G. Kinetics of the boron-oxygen related defect in theory and experiment. J Appl Phys, 2010, 108(11), 114509

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Herguth A, Schubert G, Kaes M, et al. Avoiding boron-oxygen related degradation in highly boron doped Cz silicon. 21st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (EU PVSEC), 2006, 530

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Ye F, Deng W, Guo W, et al. 22.13% efficient industrial p-type mono PERC solar cell. IEEE 43rd Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC). 2016, 3360

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Müller M, Fischer G, Bitnar B, et al. Loss analysis of 22% efficient industrial PERC solar cells. Energy Procedia, 2017, 124, 131

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LONGi Solar sets new bifacial mono-PERC solar cell world record at 24.06 percent. https://www.prnewswire.com/in/news-releases/longi-solar-sets-new-bifacial-mono-perc-solar-cell-world-record-at-24-06-percent-875820879.html

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Fell A. A free and fast three-dimensional/two-dimensional solar cell simulator featuring conductive boundary and quasi-neutrality approximations. IEEE Trans Electron Devices, 2013, 60(2), 733

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Del Alamo J A, Swanson R M. The physics and modeling of heavily doped emitters. IEEE Trans Electron Devices, 1984, 31(12), 1878

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Swanson R M J S C. Point-contact solar cells: modeling and experiment. Sol Cells, 1986, 17(1), 85

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Brendel R. Modeling solar cells with the dopant-diffused layers treated as conductive boundaries. Prog Photovolt: Res Appl, 2012, 20(1), 31

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Module ray tracer from PV lighthouse, sunsolve. https://www.pvlighthouse.com.au/sunsolve

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Fell A, Mcintosh K R, Altermatt P P, et al. Input parameters for the simulation of silicon solar cells in 2014. IEEE J Photovolt, 2017, 5(4), 1250

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Min B, Müller M, Wagner H, et al. A roadmap toward 24% efficient PERC solar cells in industrial mass production. IEEE J Photovolt, 2017, 7(6), 1541

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Ernst M, Walter D, Fell A, et al. Efficiency potential of p-type Al passivated perc solar cells with locally laser-doped rear contacts. IEEE J Photovolt, 2016, 6(3), 1

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Huang H, Modanese C, Sun S, et al. Effective passivation of p+ and n+ emitters using SiO2/Al2O3/SiNx stacks: Surface passivation mechanisms and application to industrial p-PERT bifacial Si solar cells. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells, 2018, 186, 356

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Kimmerle A, Rahman M M, Werner S, et al. Precise parameterization of the recombination velocity at passivated phosphorus doped surfaces. J Appl Phys, 2016, 119(2), 025706

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Dingemans G, Kessels W. Status and prospects of Al2O3-based surface passivation schemes for silicon solar cells. J Vac Sci Technol, A, 2012, 30(4), 040802

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Glunz S W, Feldmann F. SiO2 surface passivation layers–a key technology for silicon solar cells. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells, 2018, 185, 260

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Zhuo Z, Sannomiya Y, Kanetani Y, et al. Interface properties of SiOxNy layer on Si prepared by atmospheric-pressure plasma oxidation-nitridation. Nanoscale Res Lett, 2013, 8(1), 201

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Richter A, Glunz S W, Werner F, et al. Improved quantitative description of Auger recombination in crystalline silicon. Phys Rev B, 2012, 86(16), 4172

[31]

Shockley W, Read W Jr. Statistics of the recombinations of holes and electrons. Phys Rev, 1952, 87(5), 835

[32]

Hall R. Germanium rectifier characteristics. Phys Rev, 1951, 83(1), 228

[33]

Richter A, Werner F, Cuevas A, et al. Improved Parameterization of Auger Recombination in Silicon. Energy Procedia, 2012, 27(27), 88

[34]

Walter D C, Lim B, Schmidt J. Realistic efficiency potential of next-generation industrial Czochralski-grown silicon solar cells after deactivation of the boron–oxygen-related defect center. Prog Photovolt: Res Appl, 2016, 24(7), 920

[35]

Schmidt J, Lim B, Walter D, et al. Impurity-related limitations of next-generation industrial silicon solar cells. IEEE J Photovolt, 2013, 3(1), 114

[36]

Wolny F, Weber T, Müller M, et al. Light induced degradation and regeneration of high efficiency Cz PERC cells with varying base resistivity. Energy Procedia, 2013, 38, 523

[37]

Woehl R, H?rteis M, Glunz S. Analysis of the optical properties of screen-printed and aerosol-printed and plated fingers of silicon solar cells. Adv OptoElectron, 2008, 2008

[38]

Blakers A. Shading losses of solar-cell metal grids. J Appl Phys, 1992, 71(10), 5237

[39]

Braun S, Micard G, Hahn G. Solar cell improvement by using a multi busbar design as front electrode. Energy Procedia, 2012, 27(7), 227

[40]

Walter J, Tranitz M, Volk M, et al. Multi-wire interconnection of busbar-free solar cells. Energy Procedia, 2014, 55, 380

[41]

Rehman A U, Lee S H. Review of the potential of the Ni/Cu plating technique for crystalline silicon solar cells. Materials, 2014, 7(2), 1318

[42]

Shockley W, Queisser H J. Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells. J Appl Phys, 1961, 32(3), 510

[43]

Kerr M J, Cuevas A, Campbell P. Limiting efficiency of crystalline silicon solar cells due to Coulomb-enhanced Auger recombination. Prog Photovolt: Res Appl Math, 2003, 11(2), 97

[44]

Richter A, Hermle M, Glunz S W. Reassessment of the limiting efficiency for crystalline silicon solar cells. IEEE J Photovolt, 2013, 3(4), 1184

[1]

Blakers A W, Wang A, Milne A M, et al. 22.8% efficient silicon solar cell. Appl Phys Lett, 1989, 55(13), 1363

[2]

Joonwichien S, Utsunomiya S, Kida Y, et al. Improved rear local contact formation using Al paste containing Si for industrial PERC solar cell. IEEE J Photovolt, 2018, 8(1), 54

[3]

Albadri A M. Characterization of Al2O3 surface passivation of silicon solar cells. TSF, 2014, 562, 451

[4]

Pawlik M, Vilcot J P, Halbwax M, et al. Electrical and chemical studies on Al2O3 passivation activation process. Energy Procedia, 2014, 60, 85

[5]

Inns D, Poplavskyy D. Measurement of metal induced recombination in solar cells. IEEE 42nd Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (PVSC), 2015, 1

[6]

Inns D. Understanding metal induced recombination losses in silicon solar cells with screen printed silver contacts. Energy Procedia, 2016, 98, 23

[7]

Chen N, Ebong A. Towards 20% efficient industrial Al-BSF silicon solar cell with multiple busbars and fine gridlines. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells, 2016, 146, 107

[8]

Urue?a A, John J, Eyben P, et al. Studying local aluminum back surface field (Al-BSF) contacts through scanning spreading resistance microscopy (SSRM). 26th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (EU PVSEC), 2011

[9]

Hallam B, Herguth A, Hamer P, et al. Eliminating light-induced degradation in commercial p-type Czochralski silicon solar cells. Appl Sci, 2018, 8(1), 10

[10]

Herguth A, Hahn G. Kinetics of the boron-oxygen related defect in theory and experiment. J Appl Phys, 2010, 108(11), 114509

[11]

Herguth A, Schubert G, Kaes M, et al. Avoiding boron-oxygen related degradation in highly boron doped Cz silicon. 21st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (EU PVSEC), 2006, 530

[12]

Ye F, Deng W, Guo W, et al. 22.13% efficient industrial p-type mono PERC solar cell. IEEE 43rd Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC). 2016, 3360

[13]

Müller M, Fischer G, Bitnar B, et al. Loss analysis of 22% efficient industrial PERC solar cells. Energy Procedia, 2017, 124, 131

[14]

LONGi Solar sets new bifacial mono-PERC solar cell world record at 24.06 percent. https://www.prnewswire.com/in/news-releases/longi-solar-sets-new-bifacial-mono-perc-solar-cell-world-record-at-24-06-percent-875820879.html

[15]

Fell A. A free and fast three-dimensional/two-dimensional solar cell simulator featuring conductive boundary and quasi-neutrality approximations. IEEE Trans Electron Devices, 2013, 60(2), 733

[16]

Del Alamo J A, Swanson R M. The physics and modeling of heavily doped emitters. IEEE Trans Electron Devices, 1984, 31(12), 1878

[17]

Swanson R M J S C. Point-contact solar cells: modeling and experiment. Sol Cells, 1986, 17(1), 85

[18]

Brendel R. Modeling solar cells with the dopant-diffused layers treated as conductive boundaries. Prog Photovolt: Res Appl, 2012, 20(1), 31

[19]

Module ray tracer from PV lighthouse, sunsolve. https://www.pvlighthouse.com.au/sunsolve

[20]

Fell A, Mcintosh K R, Altermatt P P, et al. Input parameters for the simulation of silicon solar cells in 2014. IEEE J Photovolt, 2017, 5(4), 1250

[21]

Min B, Müller M, Wagner H, et al. A roadmap toward 24% efficient PERC solar cells in industrial mass production. IEEE J Photovolt, 2017, 7(6), 1541

[22]

Ernst M, Walter D, Fell A, et al. Efficiency potential of p-type Al passivated perc solar cells with locally laser-doped rear contacts. IEEE J Photovolt, 2016, 6(3), 1

[23]

Shockley W. The theory of p?n junctions in semiconductors and p?n junction transistors. Bell Syst Tech J, 1949, 28(3), 435

[24]

Würfel P. Physics of solar cells: from principles to new concepts. Berlin: Wiley-vch, 2005

[25]

Huang H, Modanese C, Sun S, et al. Effective passivation of p+ and n+ emitters using SiO2/Al2O3/SiNx stacks: Surface passivation mechanisms and application to industrial p-PERT bifacial Si solar cells. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells, 2018, 186, 356

[26]

Kimmerle A, Rahman M M, Werner S, et al. Precise parameterization of the recombination velocity at passivated phosphorus doped surfaces. J Appl Phys, 2016, 119(2), 025706

[27]

Dingemans G, Kessels W. Status and prospects of Al2O3-based surface passivation schemes for silicon solar cells. J Vac Sci Technol, A, 2012, 30(4), 040802

[28]

Glunz S W, Feldmann F. SiO2 surface passivation layers–a key technology for silicon solar cells. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells, 2018, 185, 260

[29]

Zhuo Z, Sannomiya Y, Kanetani Y, et al. Interface properties of SiOxNy layer on Si prepared by atmospheric-pressure plasma oxidation-nitridation. Nanoscale Res Lett, 2013, 8(1), 201

[30]

Richter A, Glunz S W, Werner F, et al. Improved quantitative description of Auger recombination in crystalline silicon. Phys Rev B, 2012, 86(16), 4172

[31]

Shockley W, Read W Jr. Statistics of the recombinations of holes and electrons. Phys Rev, 1952, 87(5), 835

[32]

Hall R. Germanium rectifier characteristics. Phys Rev, 1951, 83(1), 228

[33]

Richter A, Werner F, Cuevas A, et al. Improved Parameterization of Auger Recombination in Silicon. Energy Procedia, 2012, 27(27), 88

[34]

Walter D C, Lim B, Schmidt J. Realistic efficiency potential of next-generation industrial Czochralski-grown silicon solar cells after deactivation of the boron–oxygen-related defect center. Prog Photovolt: Res Appl, 2016, 24(7), 920

[35]

Schmidt J, Lim B, Walter D, et al. Impurity-related limitations of next-generation industrial silicon solar cells. IEEE J Photovolt, 2013, 3(1), 114

[36]

Wolny F, Weber T, Müller M, et al. Light induced degradation and regeneration of high efficiency Cz PERC cells with varying base resistivity. Energy Procedia, 2013, 38, 523

[37]

Woehl R, H?rteis M, Glunz S. Analysis of the optical properties of screen-printed and aerosol-printed and plated fingers of silicon solar cells. Adv OptoElectron, 2008, 2008

[38]

Blakers A. Shading losses of solar-cell metal grids. J Appl Phys, 1992, 71(10), 5237

[39]

Braun S, Micard G, Hahn G. Solar cell improvement by using a multi busbar design as front electrode. Energy Procedia, 2012, 27(7), 227

[40]

Walter J, Tranitz M, Volk M, et al. Multi-wire interconnection of busbar-free solar cells. Energy Procedia, 2014, 55, 380

[41]

Rehman A U, Lee S H. Review of the potential of the Ni/Cu plating technique for crystalline silicon solar cells. Materials, 2014, 7(2), 1318

[42]

Shockley W, Queisser H J. Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells. J Appl Phys, 1961, 32(3), 510

[43]

Kerr M J, Cuevas A, Campbell P. Limiting efficiency of crystalline silicon solar cells due to Coulomb-enhanced Auger recombination. Prog Photovolt: Res Appl Math, 2003, 11(2), 97

[44]

Richter A, Hermle M, Glunz S W. Reassessment of the limiting efficiency for crystalline silicon solar cells. IEEE J Photovolt, 2013, 3(4), 1184

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Manuscript received: 10 October 2019 Manuscript revised: 21 November 2019 Online: Accepted Manuscript: 06 February 2020 Uncorrected proof: 21 February 2020

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