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Strain-induced the dark current characteristics in InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice for mid-wave detector

H. J. Lee 1, 2, , S. Y. Ko 1, , Y. H. Kim 1, and J. Nah 2, ,

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Abstract: Type-II superlattice (T2SL) materials are a key element for infrared (IR) detectors. However, it is well known that the characteristics of the detectors with the T2SL layer are greatly affected by the strain developed during the growth process, which determines the performance of IR detectors. Therefore, great efforts have been made to properly control the strain effect and develop relevant analysis methods to evaluate the strain-induced dark current characteristics. In this work, we report the strain-induced dark current characteristics in InAs/GaSb T2SL MWIR photodetector. The overall strain of InAs/GaSb T2SL layer was analyzed by both high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and the dark current measured from the absorber layer at the elevated temperature (≥ 110 K), where the major leakage current component is originated from the reduced minority carrier lifetime in the absorber layer. Our findings indicate that minority carrier lifetime increases as the tensile strain on the InAs/GaSb T2SL is more compensated by the compressive strain through ‘InSb-like’ interface, which reduces the dark current density of the device. Specifically, tensile strain compensated devices exhibited the dark current density of less than 2 × 10–5 A/cm2 at 120 K, which is more than one order of magnitude lower value compared to that of the device without tensile strain relaxation.

Key words: Mid-wave detectorInAs/GaSb Type II super latticedark current

Abstract: Type-II superlattice (T2SL) materials are a key element for infrared (IR) detectors. However, it is well known that the characteristics of the detectors with the T2SL layer are greatly affected by the strain developed during the growth process, which determines the performance of IR detectors. Therefore, great efforts have been made to properly control the strain effect and develop relevant analysis methods to evaluate the strain-induced dark current characteristics. In this work, we report the strain-induced dark current characteristics in InAs/GaSb T2SL MWIR photodetector. The overall strain of InAs/GaSb T2SL layer was analyzed by both high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and the dark current measured from the absorber layer at the elevated temperature (≥ 110 K), where the major leakage current component is originated from the reduced minority carrier lifetime in the absorber layer. Our findings indicate that minority carrier lifetime increases as the tensile strain on the InAs/GaSb T2SL is more compensated by the compressive strain through ‘InSb-like’ interface, which reduces the dark current density of the device. Specifically, tensile strain compensated devices exhibited the dark current density of less than 2 × 10–5 A/cm2 at 120 K, which is more than one order of magnitude lower value compared to that of the device without tensile strain relaxation.

Key words: Mid-wave detectorInAs/GaSb Type II super latticedark current



References:

[1]

Rogalski A. Recent process in infrared detector technologies. Infrared Phys Technol, 2011, 54(3), 136

[2]

Rogalski A, Martyniuk P, Kopytko M. Challenges of small pixel infrared detectors: A review. Rep Prog Phys, 2016, 79(046501), 1

[3]

Rogalski A. Next decade in infrared detectors. Proc SPIE, 2017, 10433, 104330L

[4]

Rhiger D, Kvaas R, Harris S, et al. Progress with type-II superlattice IR detector arrays. Proc SPIE, 2007, 6542, 654202

[5]

Herres N, Fuchs F, Schmitz J, et al. Effect of interfacial bonding on the structural and vibrational properties of InAs/GaSb superlattices. Phys Rev B, 1996, 53(23), 15688

[6]

Steinshnider J, Weimer M, Kaspi R, et al. Visualizing interfacial structure at non-common-atom heterojunctions with cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy. Phys Rev Lett, 2000, 85(14), 2953

[7]

Lyapin S, Klipstein P, Mason N, et al. Raman selection rules for the observation of interface modes in InAs/GaSb superlattices. Phy Rev Lett, 1995, 74(16), 3285

[8]

Plis E, Annamalai S, Posani K, et al. Midwave infrared type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice detectors with mixed interfaces. J Appl Phys, 2006, 100(1), 014510

[9]

Rodriguez J, Christol P, Cerutti L, et al. MBE growth and characterization of type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices for mid-infrared detection. J Cryst Growth, 2005, 274(1-2), 6

[10]

Liu G, Fruhberger B, Schuller I, et al. Quantitative structural characterization of InAs/GaSb superlatties. J Appl Phys, 2006, 100(6), 063536

[11]

Zuo D, Qiao P, Wasserman D, et al. Direct observation of minority carrier lifetime improvement in InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice photodiodes via interfacial layer control. Appl Phys Lett, 2013, 102(14), 141107

[12]

Zhang Y, Ma W, Huang J, et al. Long wavelength infrared InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors with InSb-like and mixed interfaces. IEEE J Quantum Electron., 2011, 47(12), 1475

[13]

Song Y, Wang S, Asplund C, et al. Growth optimization, strain compensation and structure design of InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices for mid-infrared imaging. Cryst Struct Theory Appl, 2013, 02(02), 46

[14]

Kim H, Meng Y, Rouviére J, et al. Atomic resolution mapping of interfacial intermixing and segration in InAs/GaSb superlattices: A correlative study. J Appl Phys, 2013, 113(10), 103511

[15]

Mahalingam K, Haugan H, Brown G, et al. Strain analysis of compositionally tailored interfaces in InAs/GaSb superlattices. Appl Phys Lett, 2013, 103(21), 211605

[16]

Ashuach Y, Lakin E, Saguy C, et al. Atomic intermixing and interface roughness in short-period InAs/GaSb superlattices for infrared photodetectors. J Appl Phys, 2014, 116(12), 124315

[17]

Meng Y, Kim H, Rouviére J, et al. Digital model for X-ray diffraction with application to composition and strain determination in strained InAs/GaSb superlattices. J Appl Phys, 2014, 116(1), 013513

[18]

Sun Y, Wang G, Xiang W, et al. 320 × 256 high operating temperature mid-infrared focal plane arrays based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice. Superlattices Microstruct, 2017, 111, 783

[19]

H?glund S, Naureen R, Ivanov M, et al. Type II superlattices: HOT MWIR production and development at IRnova. Proc SPIE, 2019, 11002, 110020U

[1]

Rogalski A. Recent process in infrared detector technologies. Infrared Phys Technol, 2011, 54(3), 136

[2]

Rogalski A, Martyniuk P, Kopytko M. Challenges of small pixel infrared detectors: A review. Rep Prog Phys, 2016, 79(046501), 1

[3]

Rogalski A. Next decade in infrared detectors. Proc SPIE, 2017, 10433, 104330L

[4]

Rhiger D, Kvaas R, Harris S, et al. Progress with type-II superlattice IR detector arrays. Proc SPIE, 2007, 6542, 654202

[5]

Herres N, Fuchs F, Schmitz J, et al. Effect of interfacial bonding on the structural and vibrational properties of InAs/GaSb superlattices. Phys Rev B, 1996, 53(23), 15688

[6]

Steinshnider J, Weimer M, Kaspi R, et al. Visualizing interfacial structure at non-common-atom heterojunctions with cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy. Phys Rev Lett, 2000, 85(14), 2953

[7]

Lyapin S, Klipstein P, Mason N, et al. Raman selection rules for the observation of interface modes in InAs/GaSb superlattices. Phy Rev Lett, 1995, 74(16), 3285

[8]

Plis E, Annamalai S, Posani K, et al. Midwave infrared type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice detectors with mixed interfaces. J Appl Phys, 2006, 100(1), 014510

[9]

Rodriguez J, Christol P, Cerutti L, et al. MBE growth and characterization of type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices for mid-infrared detection. J Cryst Growth, 2005, 274(1-2), 6

[10]

Liu G, Fruhberger B, Schuller I, et al. Quantitative structural characterization of InAs/GaSb superlatties. J Appl Phys, 2006, 100(6), 063536

[11]

Zuo D, Qiao P, Wasserman D, et al. Direct observation of minority carrier lifetime improvement in InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice photodiodes via interfacial layer control. Appl Phys Lett, 2013, 102(14), 141107

[12]

Zhang Y, Ma W, Huang J, et al. Long wavelength infrared InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors with InSb-like and mixed interfaces. IEEE J Quantum Electron., 2011, 47(12), 1475

[13]

Song Y, Wang S, Asplund C, et al. Growth optimization, strain compensation and structure design of InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices for mid-infrared imaging. Cryst Struct Theory Appl, 2013, 02(02), 46

[14]

Kim H, Meng Y, Rouviére J, et al. Atomic resolution mapping of interfacial intermixing and segration in InAs/GaSb superlattices: A correlative study. J Appl Phys, 2013, 113(10), 103511

[15]

Mahalingam K, Haugan H, Brown G, et al. Strain analysis of compositionally tailored interfaces in InAs/GaSb superlattices. Appl Phys Lett, 2013, 103(21), 211605

[16]

Ashuach Y, Lakin E, Saguy C, et al. Atomic intermixing and interface roughness in short-period InAs/GaSb superlattices for infrared photodetectors. J Appl Phys, 2014, 116(12), 124315

[17]

Meng Y, Kim H, Rouviére J, et al. Digital model for X-ray diffraction with application to composition and strain determination in strained InAs/GaSb superlattices. J Appl Phys, 2014, 116(1), 013513

[18]

Sun Y, Wang G, Xiang W, et al. 320 × 256 high operating temperature mid-infrared focal plane arrays based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice. Superlattices Microstruct, 2017, 111, 783

[19]

H?glund S, Naureen R, Ivanov M, et al. Type II superlattices: HOT MWIR production and development at IRnova. Proc SPIE, 2019, 11002, 110020U

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History

Manuscript received: 20 November 2019 Manuscript revised: 27 December 2019 Online: Accepted Manuscript: 26 February 2020 Uncorrected proof: 29 February 2020

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