J. Semicond. > Volume 41?>?Issue 4?> Article Number: 041603

A review of flexible halide perovskite solar cells towards scalable manufacturing and environmental sustainability

Melissa Davis and Zhibin Yu ,

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Abstract: The perovskite material has many superb qualities which allow for its remarkable success as solar cells; flexibility is an emerging field for this technology. To encourage commercialization of flexible perovskite solar cells, two main areas are of focus: mitigation of stability issues and adaptation of production to flexible substrates. An in-depth report on stability concerns and solutions follows with a focus on Ruddlesden-Popper perovskites. Roll to roll processing of devices is desired to further reduce costs, so a review of flexible devices and their production methods follows as well. The final focus is on the sustainability of perovskite solar cell devices where recycling methods and holistic environmental impacts of devices are done.

Key words: materialthin filmdiode

Abstract: The perovskite material has many superb qualities which allow for its remarkable success as solar cells; flexibility is an emerging field for this technology. To encourage commercialization of flexible perovskite solar cells, two main areas are of focus: mitigation of stability issues and adaptation of production to flexible substrates. An in-depth report on stability concerns and solutions follows with a focus on Ruddlesden-Popper perovskites. Roll to roll processing of devices is desired to further reduce costs, so a review of flexible devices and their production methods follows as well. The final focus is on the sustainability of perovskite solar cell devices where recycling methods and holistic environmental impacts of devices are done.

Key words: materialthin filmdiode



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[1]

Best research-cell efficiency chart. Photovoltaic Research. https://www.nrel.gov/pv/cell-efficiency.html

[2]

Park N G. Perovskite solar cells: an emerging photovoltaic technology. Mater Today, 2015, 18(2), 65

[3]

Wang R, Mujahid M, Duan Y, et al. A review of perovskites solar cell stability. Adv Funct Mater, 2019, 0(0), 1808843

[4]

AIST: research center for photovoltaic technologies - functional thin films team. https://unit.aist.go.jp/rcpv/cie/r_teams/eFTFT/index.html

[5]

Li C, Lu X, Ding W, et al. Formability of ABX3 (X = F, Cl, Br, I) halide perovskites. Acta Crystallogr B, 2008, 64(6), 702

[6]

Castelli I E, García-Lastra J M, Thygesen K S, et al. Bandgap calculations and trends of organometal halide perovskites. APL Mater, 2014, 2(8), 081514

[7]

Wang L, Yuan G D, Duan R F, et al. Tunable bandgap in hybrid perovskite CH3NH3Pb(Br3– yXy) single crystals and photodetector applications. AIP Adv, 2016, 6(4), 045115

[8]

De Wolf S, Holovsky J, Moon S J, et al. Organometallic halide perovskites: sharp optical absorption edge and its relation to photovoltaic performance. J Phys Chem Lett, 2014, 5(6), 1035

[9]

Ledinsky M, Sch?nfeldová T, Holovsk? J, et al. Temperature dependence of the urbach energy in lead iodide perovskites. J Phys Chem Lett, 2019, 10(6), 1368

[10]

Xing G, Mathews N, Sun S, et al. Long-range balanced electron- and hole-transport lengths in organic-inorganic CH3NH3PbI3. Science, 2013, 342(6156), 344

[11]

Stranks S D, Eperon G E, Grancini G, et al. Electron-hole diffusion lengths exceeding 1 micrometer in an organometal trihalide perovskite absorber. Science, 2013, 342(6156), 341

[12]

Peng J, Chen Y, Zheng K, et al. Insights into charge carrier dynamics in organo-metal halide perovskites: from neat films to solar cells. Chem Soc Rev, 2017, 46(19), 5714

[13]

Snaith H J, Abate A, Ball J M, et al. Anomalous hysteresis in perovskite solar cells. J Phys Chem Lett, 2014, 5(9), 1511

[14]

Shao Y, Xiao Z, Bi C, et al. Origin and elimination of photocurrent hysteresis by fullerene passivation in CH3NH3PbI3 planar heterojunction solar cells. Nat Commun, 2014, 5, 5784

[15]

Elumalai N K, Mahmud M A, Wang D, et al. Perovskite solar cells: progress and advancements. Energies, 2016, 9(11), 861

[16]

Kang D H, Park N G. On the current–voltage hysteresis in perovskite solar cells: dependence on perovskite composition and methods to remove hysteresis. Adv Mater, 2019, 0(0), 1805214

[17]

Kim H S, Jang I H, Ahn N, et al. Control of IV hysteresis in CH3NH3-PbI3 perovskite solar cell. J Phys Chem Lett, 2015, 6(22), 4633

[18]

Fakharuddin A, Shabbir U, Qiu W, et al. Inorganic and layered perovskites for optoelectronic devices. Adv Mater, 2019, 0(0), 1807095

[19]

Son D Y, Kim S G, Seo J Y, et al. Universal approach toward hysteresis-free perovskite solar cell via defect engineering. J Am Chem Soc, 2018, 140(4), 1358

[20]

Rong Y, Hu Y, Mei A, et al. Challenges for commercializing perovskite solar cells. Science, 2018, 361(6408), eaat8235

[21]

Boyd C C, Cheacharoen R, Leijtens T, et al. Understanding degradation mechanisms and improving stability of perovskite photovoltaics. Chem Rev, 2019, 119, 3418

[22]

Ma C, Leng C, Ji Y, et al. 2D/3D perovskite hybrids as moisture-tolerant and efficient light absorbers for solar cells. Nanoscale, 2016, 8(43), 18309

[23]

Noh J H, Im S H, Heo J H, et al. Chemical management for colorful, efficient, and stable inorganic–organic hybrid nanostructured solar cells. Nano Lett, 2013, 13(4), 1764

[24]

Tai Q, You P, Sang H, et al. Efficient and stable perovskite solar cells prepared in ambient air irrespective of the humidity. Nat Commun, 2016, 7, 11105

[25]

Jiang Q, Rebollar D, Gong J, et al. Pseudohalide-induced moisture tolerance in perovskite CH3NH3Pb(SCN)2I thin films. Angew Chem, 2015, 127(26), 7727

[26]

Domanski K, Alharbi E A, Hagfeldt A, et al. Systematic investigation of the impact of operation conditions on the degradation behaviour of perovskite solar cells. Nat Energy, 2018, 3(1), 61

[27]

Bryant D, Aristidou N, Pont S, et al. Light and oxygen induced degradation limits the operational stability of methylammonium lead triiodide perovskite solar cells. Energy Environ Sci, 2016, 9(5), 1655

[28]

Kim G Y, Senocrate A, Yang T Y, et al. Large tunable photoeffect on ion conduction in halide perovskites and implications for photodecomposition. Nat Mater, 2018, 17(5), 445

[29]

Saidaminov M I, Kim J, Jain A, et al. Suppression of atomic vacancies via incorporation of isovalent small ions to increase the stability of halide perovskite solar cells in ambient air. Nat Energy, 2018, 3(8), 648

[30]

Stranks S D, Snaith H J. Metal-halide perovskites for photovoltaic and light-emitting devices. Nat Nanotechnol, 2015, 10(5), 391

[31]

Ouafi M, Jaber B, Atourki L, et al. Improving UV stability of MAPbI3 perovskite thin films by bromide incorporation. J Alloys Compd, 2018, 746, 391

[32]

Li F, Liu M. Recent efficient strategies for improving the moisture stability of perovskite solar cells. J Mater Chem, A, 2017, 5(30), 15447

[33]

Han Y, Meyer S, Dkhissi Y, et al. Degradation observations of encapsulated planar CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells at high temperatures and humidity. J Mater Chem, A, 2015, 3(15), 8139

[34]

Cao D H, Stoumpos C C, Yokoyama T, et al. Thin films and solar cells based on semiconducting two-dimensional Ruddlesden–Popper (CH3(CH2)3NH3)2(CH3NH3) n-1Sn nI3 n+1 perovskites. ACS Energy Lett, 2017, 2(5), 982

[35]

Chen P, Bai Y, Wang S, et al. In situ growth of 2D perovskite capping layer for stable and efficient perovskite solar cells. Adv Funct Mater, 2018, 28(17), 1706923

[36]

Gao L, Zhang F, Xiao C, et al. Improving charge transport via intermediate-controlled crystal growth in 2D perovskite solar cells. Adv Funct Mater, 2019, 0(0), 1901652

[37]

Cao D H, Stoumpos C C, Farha O K, et al. 2D homologous perovskites as light-absorbing materials for solar cell applications. J Am Chem Soc, 2015, 137(24), 7843

[38]

Ortiz-Cervantes C, Carmona-Monroy P, Solis-Ibarra D. Two-dimensional halide perovskites in solar cells: 2D or not 2D. ChemSusChem, 2019, 12(8), 1560

[39]

Smith I C, Hoke E T, Solis-Ibarra D, et al. A layered hybrid perovskite solar-cell absorber with enhanced moisture stability. Angew Chem, 2014, 126(42), 11414

[40]

Hu H, Salim T, Chen B, et al. Molecularly engineered organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite with multiple quantum well structure for multicolored light-emitting diodes. Sci Rep, 2016, 6, 33546

[41]

Stoumpos C C, Soe C M M, Tsai H, et al. High members of the 2D Ruddlesden-Popper halide perovskites: synthesis, optical properties, and solar cells of (CH3(CH2)3NH3)2(CH3NH3)4Pb5I16. Chem, 2017, 2(3), 427

[42]

Shockley W, Queisser H J. Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells. J Appl Phys, 1961, 32(3), 510

[43]

Blancon J C, Tsai H, Nie W, et al. Extremely efficient internal exciton dissociation through edge states in layered 2D perovskites. Science, 2017, eaal4211

[44]

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M Davis, Z B Yu, A review of flexible halide perovskite solar cells towards scalable manufacturing and environmental sustainability[J]. J. Semicond., 2020, 41(4): 041603. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/4/041603.

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Manuscript received: 30 December 2019 Manuscript revised: 10 March 2020 Online: Accepted Manuscript: 18 March 2020 Uncorrected proof: 02 April 2020 Published: 10 April 2020

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