Chanrong Jiang^{ , } , Changchun Chai^{ } , Chenxi Han^{ } and Yintang Yang^{ }
Abstract: This paper presents an AOT-controlled (adaptive-on-time, AOT) valley-current-mode buck converter for portable application. The buck converter with synchronous rectifier not only uses valley-current-mode control but also possesses hybrid-mode control functions at the same time. Due to the presence of the zero-current detection circuit, the converter can switch freely between the two operating modes without the need for an external mode selection circuit, which further reduces the design difficulty and chip area. The converter for the application of high power efficiency and wide current range is used to generate the voltage of 0.6–3.0 V with a battery source of 3.3–5.0 V, while the load current range is 0.05–2 A. The circuit can work in continuous conduction mode with constant frequency in high load current range. In addition, a stable output voltage can be obtained with small voltage ripple. In pace with the load current decreases to a critical value, the converter transforms into the discontinuous conduction mode smoothly. As the switching period increases, the switching loss decreases, which can significantly improve the conversion efficiency. The proposed AOT controlled valley current mode buck converter is integrated with standard 0.18 μm process and the simulation results show that the converter provides well-loaded regulations with power efficiency over 95%. When the circuit switches between the two conduction modes drastically, the response time can be controlled within 30 μs. The undershoot voltage is controlled within 25 mV under a large current hopping range.
Key words: adaptive on-time, buck converter, fast response, constant frequency, high efficiency
Abstract: This paper presents an AOT-controlled (adaptive-on-time, AOT) valley-current-mode buck converter for portable application. The buck converter with synchronous rectifier not only uses valley-current-mode control but also possesses hybrid-mode control functions at the same time. Due to the presence of the zero-current detection circuit, the converter can switch freely between the two operating modes without the need for an external mode selection circuit, which further reduces the design difficulty and chip area. The converter for the application of high power efficiency and wide current range is used to generate the voltage of 0.6–3.0 V with a battery source of 3.3–5.0 V, while the load current range is 0.05–2 A. The circuit can work in continuous conduction mode with constant frequency in high load current range. In addition, a stable output voltage can be obtained with small voltage ripple. In pace with the load current decreases to a critical value, the converter transforms into the discontinuous conduction mode smoothly. As the switching period increases, the switching loss decreases, which can significantly improve the conversion efficiency. The proposed AOT controlled valley current mode buck converter is integrated with standard 0.18 μm process and the simulation results show that the converter provides well-loaded regulations with power efficiency over 95%. When the circuit switches between the two conduction modes drastically, the response time can be controlled within 30 μs. The undershoot voltage is controlled within 25 mV under a large current hopping range.
Key words:
adaptive on-time, buck converter, fast response, constant frequency, high efficiency
References:
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Chen J J, Hwang Y S, Chen J H, et al. A new fast-response current-mode buck converter with improved I2-controlled techniques. IEEE Trans Very Large Scale Integr (VLSI) Syst, 2018, 26, 903 |
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Lee C F, Mok P K T. A monolithic current-mode CMOS DC-DC converter with on-chip current-sensing technique. IEEE J Solid-State Circuits, 2004, 39(1), 3 |
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Nam H, Ahn Y, Roh J. A buck converter with adaptive on-time PFM control and adjustable output voltage. Analog Integr Circuits Signal Process, 2012, 71(2), 327 |
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Qiu Y, Liu H, Chen X. Digital average current-mode control of PWM DC–DC converters without current sensors. IEEE Trans Ind Electron, 2010, 57(5), 1670 |
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Jing X, Mok P K T, Lee M C. Current-slope-controlled adaptive-on-time DC-DC converter with fixed frequency and fast transient response. IEEE International Symposium on Circuits & Systems, 2011 |
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Jing X, Mok P K T. A fast fixed-frequency adaptive-on-time boost converter with light load efficiency enhancement and predictable noise spectrum. IEEE J Solid-State Circuits, 2013, 48(10), 2442 |
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Li Q, Lai X, Zhong L. Adaptive current-threshold detector for an adaptive on-time buck converter at light load. Analog Integr Circuits Signal Process, 2018, 95, 541 |
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Li J, Lee F C. New modeling approach and equivalent circuit representation for current-mode control. IEEE Trans Power Electron, 2010, 25(5), 1218 |
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Shi H, Sun Z, Xu Y, et al. Design of the 1.0 V bandgap reference on chip. IEEE International Conference on Asic, 2016 |
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Huang S P, Feng Q Y, University S J. Design of a novel zero-cross detection circuit for synchronous buck converter. Chin J Electron Devices, 2014, 37, 408 |
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Yuan B, Lai X Q, Wang H Y, et al. High-efficient hybrid buck converter with switch-on-demand modulation and switch size control for wide-load low-ripple applications. IEEE Trans Microwave Theory Tech, 2013, 61(9), 3329 |
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Jin Y Y, Xu J P, Zhou G H. Constant on-time digital peak voltage control for buck converter. Energy Conversion Congress & Exposition, 2010, 2030 |
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Gildersleeve M, Forghanizadeh H P, Member S, et al. A comprehensive power analysis and a highly efficient, mode-hopping DC-DC converter. IEEE Asia-pacific Conference on Asic, 2002 |
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Huang C, Mok P K T. A 100 MHz 82.4% efficiency package-bondwire based four-phase fully-integrated buck converter with flying capacitor for area reduction. IEEE J Solid-State Circuits, 2013, 48(12), 2977 |
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Li P, Xue L, Hazucha P, et al. A delay-locked loop synchronization scheme for high-frequency multiphase hysteretic DC–DC converters. IEEE J Solid-State Circuits, 2009, 44(11), 3131 |
[28] |
Lee B, Song M K, Maity A, et al. 10.7 A 25 MHz 4-phase SAW hysteretic DC–DC converter with 1-cycle APC achieving 190 ns tsettle to 4 A load transient and above 80% efficiency in 96.7% of the power range. Solid-State Circuits Conference, 2017 |
[29] |
Teh C K, Suzuki A, Yamada M, et al. 4.1 A 3-phase digitally controlled DC-DC converter with 88% ripple reduced 1-cycle phase adding/dropping scheme and 28% power saving CT/DT hybrid current control. IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers, 2014 |
[1] |
Yu J, Hwang I, Kim N. High performance CMOS integrated PWM/PFM dual-mode DC-DC buck converter. 2017 18th International Scientific Conference on Electric Power Engineering (EPE), 2017, 1 |
[2] |
Wang L, Lin F J, Cui Q. Dual 3-phase buck converter for multi-core CPUs power supply in mobile devices. IEICE Electron Express, 2017, 14, 20170045 |
[3] |
Ma Y, Wang S, Zhang S, et al. A current mode buck/boost DC–DC converter with automatic mode transition and light load efficiency enhancement. IEICE Trans Electron, 2015, E98C, 496 |
[4] |
Chen J J, Shen J H, Hwang Y S. High-efficiency fast-transient-response V2-controlled boost converter with small ESR capacitor. Electron Lett, 2013, 49(22), 1402 |
[5] |
Ke X, Sankman J, Ma D. AO2T current mode buck converter with one-cycle transient response and sensorless current detection for medical meters. IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), 2016 |
[6] |
Chen X, Zhou G, Zhang K, et al. Improved constant on-time controlled buck converter with high output-regulation accuracy. Electron Lett, 2015, 51(4), 359 |
[7] |
Yan Y, Lee F C, Mattavelli P, et al. I2 average current mode control for switching converters. 2013 IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition - APEC, 2013 |
[8] |
Chen J J, Hwang Y S, Chen J H, et al. A new fast-response current-mode buck converter with improved I2-controlled techniques. IEEE Trans Very Large Scale Integr (VLSI) Syst, 2018, 26, 903 |
[9] |
Redl R, Sun J. Ripple-based control of switching regulators-an overview. IEEE Trans Power Electron, 2010, 24(12), 2669 |
[10] |
Lee C F, Mok P K T. A monolithic current-mode CMOS DC-DC converter with on-chip current-sensing technique. IEEE J Solid-State Circuits, 2004, 39(1), 3 |
[11] |
Sahu B, Rincn-Mora G A. An accurate, low-voltage, CMOS switching power supply with adaptive on-time pulse-frequency modulation (PFM) control. IEEE Trans Circuits Systems I, 2007, 54(2), 312 |
[12] |
Nam H, Ahn Y, Roh J. A buck converter with adaptive on-time PFM control and adjustable output voltage. Analog Integr Circuits Signal Process, 2012, 71(2), 327 |
[13] |
Qiu Y, Liu H, Chen X. Digital average current-mode control of PWM DC–DC converters without current sensors. IEEE Trans Ind Electron, 2010, 57(5), 1670 |
[14] |
Barrado A, Vazquez R, Lazaro A, et al. Fast transient response with combined linear-non-linear control applied to buck converters. IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 2002 |
[15] |
Lee M C, Jing X, Mok P K T. A 14V-output adaptive-off-time boost converter with quasi-fixed-frequency in full loading range. IEEE International Symposium of Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), 2011 |
[16] |
Jing X, Mok P K T, Lee M C. Current-slope-controlled adaptive-on-time DC-DC converter with fixed frequency and fast transient response. IEEE International Symposium on Circuits & Systems, 2011 |
[17] |
Xu Y, Xu J, Xu L, et al. Constant frequency turn-on time control dynamic voltage scaling boost converter. International Conference on Communications, 2013 |
[18] |
Jing X, Mok P K T. A fast fixed-frequency adaptive-on-time boost converter with light load efficiency enhancement and predictable noise spectrum. IEEE J Solid-State Circuits, 2013, 48(10), 2442 |
[19] |
Li Q, Lai X, Zhong L. Adaptive current-threshold detector for an adaptive on-time buck converter at light load. Analog Integr Circuits Signal Process, 2018, 95, 541 |
[20] |
Li J, Lee F C. New modeling approach and equivalent circuit representation for current-mode control. IEEE Trans Power Electron, 2010, 25(5), 1218 |
[21] |
Shi H, Sun Z, Xu Y, et al. Design of the 1.0 V bandgap reference on chip. IEEE International Conference on Asic, 2016 |
[22] |
Huang S P, Feng Q Y, University S J. Design of a novel zero-cross detection circuit for synchronous buck converter. Chin J Electron Devices, 2014, 37, 408 |
[23] |
Yuan B, Lai X Q, Wang H Y, et al. High-efficient hybrid buck converter with switch-on-demand modulation and switch size control for wide-load low-ripple applications. IEEE Trans Microwave Theory Tech, 2013, 61(9), 3329 |
[24] |
Jin Y Y, Xu J P, Zhou G H. Constant on-time digital peak voltage control for buck converter. Energy Conversion Congress & Exposition, 2010, 2030 |
[25] |
Gildersleeve M, Forghanizadeh H P, Member S, et al. A comprehensive power analysis and a highly efficient, mode-hopping DC-DC converter. IEEE Asia-pacific Conference on Asic, 2002 |
[26] |
Huang C, Mok P K T. A 100 MHz 82.4% efficiency package-bondwire based four-phase fully-integrated buck converter with flying capacitor for area reduction. IEEE J Solid-State Circuits, 2013, 48(12), 2977 |
[27] |
Li P, Xue L, Hazucha P, et al. A delay-locked loop synchronization scheme for high-frequency multiphase hysteretic DC–DC converters. IEEE J Solid-State Circuits, 2009, 44(11), 3131 |
[28] |
Lee B, Song M K, Maity A, et al. 10.7 A 25 MHz 4-phase SAW hysteretic DC–DC converter with 1-cycle APC achieving 190 ns tsettle to 4 A load transient and above 80% efficiency in 96.7% of the power range. Solid-State Circuits Conference, 2017 |
[29] |
Teh C K, Suzuki A, Yamada M, et al. 4.1 A 3-phase digitally controlled DC-DC converter with 88% ripple reduced 1-cycle phase adding/dropping scheme and 28% power saving CT/DT hybrid current control. IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers, 2014 |
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Manuscript received: 13 August 2019 Manuscript revised: 21 December 2019 Online: Accepted Manuscript: 18 February 2020 Uncorrected proof: 20 March 2020
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