J. Semicond. > Volume 41?>?Issue 4?> Article Number: 042601

Tubular/helical architecture construction based on rolled-up AlN nanomembranes and resonance as optical microcavity

Jinyu Yang 1, , Yang Wang 1, , Lu Wang 1, , Ziao Tian 2, , , Zengfeng Di 2, and Yongfeng Mei 1, ,

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Abstract: Aluminum nitride (AlN) has attracted a great amount of interest due to the fact that these group III–V semiconductors present direct band gap behavior and are compatible with current micro-electro-mechanical systems. In this work, three dimensional (3D) AlN architectures including tubes and helices were constructed by rolling up AlN nanomembranes grown on a silicon-on-insulator wafer via magnetron sputtering. The properties of the AlN membrane were characterized through transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The thickness of AlN nanomembranes could be tuned via the RIE thinning method, and thus micro-tubes with different diameters were fabricated. The intrinsic strain in AlN membranes was investigated via micro-Raman spectroscopy, which agrees well with theory prediction. Whispering gallery mode was observed in AlN tubular optical microcavity in photoluminescence spectrum. A postprocess involving atomic layer deposition and R6G immersion were employed on as-fabricated AlN tubes to promote the Q-factor. The AlN tubular micro-resonators could offer a novel design route for Si-based integrated light sources. In addition, the rolled-up technology paves a new way for AlN 3D structure fabrication, which is promising for AlN application in MEMS and photonics fields.

Key words: AlN nanomembranesrolled-up technologyhelicesoptical microcavity

Abstract: Aluminum nitride (AlN) has attracted a great amount of interest due to the fact that these group III–V semiconductors present direct band gap behavior and are compatible with current micro-electro-mechanical systems. In this work, three dimensional (3D) AlN architectures including tubes and helices were constructed by rolling up AlN nanomembranes grown on a silicon-on-insulator wafer via magnetron sputtering. The properties of the AlN membrane were characterized through transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The thickness of AlN nanomembranes could be tuned via the RIE thinning method, and thus micro-tubes with different diameters were fabricated. The intrinsic strain in AlN membranes was investigated via micro-Raman spectroscopy, which agrees well with theory prediction. Whispering gallery mode was observed in AlN tubular optical microcavity in photoluminescence spectrum. A postprocess involving atomic layer deposition and R6G immersion were employed on as-fabricated AlN tubes to promote the Q-factor. The AlN tubular micro-resonators could offer a novel design route for Si-based integrated light sources. In addition, the rolled-up technology paves a new way for AlN 3D structure fabrication, which is promising for AlN application in MEMS and photonics fields.

Key words: AlN nanomembranesrolled-up technologyhelicesoptical microcavity



References:

[1]

Vurgaftman I, Meyer J R, Ram-Mohan L R. Band parameters for III–V compound semiconductors and their alloys. J Appl Phys, 2001, 89(11), 5815

[2]

Li L W, Bando Y, Zhu Y C, et al. Single-crystalline AlN nanotubes with carbon-layer coatings on the outer and inner surfaces via a multiwalled-carbon-nanotube-template-induced route. Adv Mater, 2005, 17(2), 213

[3]

Bowen C R, Kim H A, Weaver P M, et al. Piezoelectric and ferroelectric materials and structures for energy harvesting applications. Energy Environ Sci, 2013, 7, 25

[4]

Zheng B J, Hu W. Cubic AlN thin film formation on quartz substrate by pulse laser deposition. J Semicond, 2016, 37(6), 063003

[5]

Sinha N, Wabiszewski G E, Mahameed R, et al. Piezoelectric aluminum nitride nanoelectromechanical actuators. Appl Phys Lett, 2009, 95(5), 053106

[6]

Xiong C, Pernice W H P, Sun X, et al. Aluminum nitride as a new material for chip-scale optomechanics and nonlinear optics. New J Phys, 2012, 14(9), 095014

[7]

Longhi S, Feng L. Unidirectional lasing in semiconductor microring lasers at an exceptional point. Photonics Res, 2017, 5(6), B1

[8]

Bürger M, Ruth M, Declair S, et al. Whispering gallery modes in zinc-blende AlN microdisks containing non-polar GaN quantum dots. Appl Phys Lett, 2013, 102(8), 081105

[9]

Wang J, Zhan T, Huang G, et al. Optical microcavities with tubular geometry: properties and applications. Laser Photonics Rev, 2014, 8(4), 521

[10]

Lin X, Fang Y, Zhu L, et al. Self-rolling of oxide nanomembranes and resonance coupling in tubular optical microcavity. Adv Opt Mater, 2016, 4(6), 936

[11]

Kipp T, Welsch H, Strelow C, et al. Optical modes in semiconductor microtube ring resonators. Phys Rev Lett, 2006, 96(7), 077403

[12]

Huang G, Mei Y. Assembly and self-assembly of nanomembrane materials—from 2D to 3D. Small, 2018, 14(14), 1703665

[13]

Tian Z, Zhang L, Fang Y, et al. Deterministic self-rolling of ultrathin nanocrystalline diamond nanomembranes for 3D tubular/helical architecture. Adv Mater, 2017, 29(13), 1604572

[14]

Huang G S, Mei Y F, Cavallo F, et al. Fabrication and optical properties of C/β-SiC/Si hybrid rolled-up microtubes. J Appl Phys, 2009, 105, 016103

[15]

Yu X, Huang W, Li M, et al. Ultra-small, high-frequency, and substrate-immune microtube inductors transformed from 2D to 3D. Sci Rep, 2015, 5, 9661

[16]

Fang Y, Li Xn, Tang S, et al. Temperature-dependent optical resonance in a thin-walled tubular oxide microcavity. Prog Nat Sci Mater, 2017, 27(4), 498

[17]

Yan C, Xi W, Si W, et al. Highly conductive and strain-released hybrid multilayer Ge/Ti nanomembranes with enhanced lithium-ion-storage capability. Adv Mater, 2013, 25(4), 539

[18]

Kim J, Choi U, Pyeon J, et al. Deep-ultraviolet AlGaN/AlN core-shell multiple quantum wells on AlN nanorods via lithography-free method. Sci Rep, 2018, 8(1), 935

[19]

Huang G, Mei Y. Thinning and shaping solid films into functional and integrative nanomembranes. Adv Mater, 2012, 24(19), 2517

[20]

Akiyama M, Morofuji Y, Kamohara T, et al. Flexible piezoelectric pressure sensors using oriented aluminum nitride thin films prepared on polyethylene terephthalate films. J Appl Phys, 2006, 1143185

[21]

Zhao C, Knisely K E, Colesa D J, et al. Voltage readout from a piezoelectric intracochlear acoustic transducer implanted in a living guinea pig. Sci Rep, 2019, 9, 3711

[22]

Ledermann N, Muralt P, Baborowski J, et al. Piezoelectric Pb(Zrx, Ti1x)O3 thin film cantilever and bridge acoustic sensors for miniaturized photoacoustic gas detectors. J Micromech Microeng, 2004, 14, 1650

[23]

Froeter P, Yu X, Huang W, et al. 3D hierarchical architectures based on self-rolled-up silicon nitride membranes. Nanotechnology, 2013, 24(47), 475301

[24]

Dodson B W, Tsao J Y. Relaxation of strained-layer semiconductor structures via plastic flow. Appl Phys Lett, 1987, 51(17), 1325

[25]

Trodahl H J, Martin F, Muralt P, et al. Raman spectroscopy of sputtered AlN films: E2 (high) biaxial strain dependence. Appl Phys Lett, 2006, 89(6), 061905

[26]

Yonenaga I, Shima T, Sluiter M H F. Nano-indentation hardness and elastic moduli of bulk single-crystal AlN. Jpn J Appl Phys, 2002, 41(7R), 4620

[27]

Kuball M, Hayes J M, Prins A D, et al. Raman scattering studies on single-crystalline bulk AlN under high pressures. Appl Phys Lett, 2001, 78(6), 724

[28]

Tang Y, Cong H, Li F, et al. Synthesis and photoluminescent property of AlN nanobelt array. Diamond Relat Mater, 2007, 16(3), 537

[29]

Cao Y G, Chen X L, Lan Y C, et al. Blue emission and Raman scattering spectrum from AlN nanocrystalline powders. J Cryst Growth, 2000, 213(1/2), 198

[30]

Wang J, Song E, Yang C, et al. Fabrication and whispering gallery resonance of self-rolled up gallium nitride microcavities. Thin Solid Films, 2017, 627, 77

[31]

Wang J, Zhang T, Huang G, et al. Tubular oxide microcavity with high-indexcontrast walls: Mie scattering theory and 3D confinement of resonant modes. Opt Express, 2012, 20(17), 18555

[1]

Vurgaftman I, Meyer J R, Ram-Mohan L R. Band parameters for III–V compound semiconductors and their alloys. J Appl Phys, 2001, 89(11), 5815

[2]

Li L W, Bando Y, Zhu Y C, et al. Single-crystalline AlN nanotubes with carbon-layer coatings on the outer and inner surfaces via a multiwalled-carbon-nanotube-template-induced route. Adv Mater, 2005, 17(2), 213

[3]

Bowen C R, Kim H A, Weaver P M, et al. Piezoelectric and ferroelectric materials and structures for energy harvesting applications. Energy Environ Sci, 2013, 7, 25

[4]

Zheng B J, Hu W. Cubic AlN thin film formation on quartz substrate by pulse laser deposition. J Semicond, 2016, 37(6), 063003

[5]

Sinha N, Wabiszewski G E, Mahameed R, et al. Piezoelectric aluminum nitride nanoelectromechanical actuators. Appl Phys Lett, 2009, 95(5), 053106

[6]

Xiong C, Pernice W H P, Sun X, et al. Aluminum nitride as a new material for chip-scale optomechanics and nonlinear optics. New J Phys, 2012, 14(9), 095014

[7]

Longhi S, Feng L. Unidirectional lasing in semiconductor microring lasers at an exceptional point. Photonics Res, 2017, 5(6), B1

[8]

Bürger M, Ruth M, Declair S, et al. Whispering gallery modes in zinc-blende AlN microdisks containing non-polar GaN quantum dots. Appl Phys Lett, 2013, 102(8), 081105

[9]

Wang J, Zhan T, Huang G, et al. Optical microcavities with tubular geometry: properties and applications. Laser Photonics Rev, 2014, 8(4), 521

[10]

Lin X, Fang Y, Zhu L, et al. Self-rolling of oxide nanomembranes and resonance coupling in tubular optical microcavity. Adv Opt Mater, 2016, 4(6), 936

[11]

Kipp T, Welsch H, Strelow C, et al. Optical modes in semiconductor microtube ring resonators. Phys Rev Lett, 2006, 96(7), 077403

[12]

Huang G, Mei Y. Assembly and self-assembly of nanomembrane materials—from 2D to 3D. Small, 2018, 14(14), 1703665

[13]

Tian Z, Zhang L, Fang Y, et al. Deterministic self-rolling of ultrathin nanocrystalline diamond nanomembranes for 3D tubular/helical architecture. Adv Mater, 2017, 29(13), 1604572

[14]

Huang G S, Mei Y F, Cavallo F, et al. Fabrication and optical properties of C/β-SiC/Si hybrid rolled-up microtubes. J Appl Phys, 2009, 105, 016103

[15]

Yu X, Huang W, Li M, et al. Ultra-small, high-frequency, and substrate-immune microtube inductors transformed from 2D to 3D. Sci Rep, 2015, 5, 9661

[16]

Fang Y, Li Xn, Tang S, et al. Temperature-dependent optical resonance in a thin-walled tubular oxide microcavity. Prog Nat Sci Mater, 2017, 27(4), 498

[17]

Yan C, Xi W, Si W, et al. Highly conductive and strain-released hybrid multilayer Ge/Ti nanomembranes with enhanced lithium-ion-storage capability. Adv Mater, 2013, 25(4), 539

[18]

Kim J, Choi U, Pyeon J, et al. Deep-ultraviolet AlGaN/AlN core-shell multiple quantum wells on AlN nanorods via lithography-free method. Sci Rep, 2018, 8(1), 935

[19]

Huang G, Mei Y. Thinning and shaping solid films into functional and integrative nanomembranes. Adv Mater, 2012, 24(19), 2517

[20]

Akiyama M, Morofuji Y, Kamohara T, et al. Flexible piezoelectric pressure sensors using oriented aluminum nitride thin films prepared on polyethylene terephthalate films. J Appl Phys, 2006, 1143185

[21]

Zhao C, Knisely K E, Colesa D J, et al. Voltage readout from a piezoelectric intracochlear acoustic transducer implanted in a living guinea pig. Sci Rep, 2019, 9, 3711

[22]

Ledermann N, Muralt P, Baborowski J, et al. Piezoelectric Pb(Zrx, Ti1x)O3 thin film cantilever and bridge acoustic sensors for miniaturized photoacoustic gas detectors. J Micromech Microeng, 2004, 14, 1650

[23]

Froeter P, Yu X, Huang W, et al. 3D hierarchical architectures based on self-rolled-up silicon nitride membranes. Nanotechnology, 2013, 24(47), 475301

[24]

Dodson B W, Tsao J Y. Relaxation of strained-layer semiconductor structures via plastic flow. Appl Phys Lett, 1987, 51(17), 1325

[25]

Trodahl H J, Martin F, Muralt P, et al. Raman spectroscopy of sputtered AlN films: E2 (high) biaxial strain dependence. Appl Phys Lett, 2006, 89(6), 061905

[26]

Yonenaga I, Shima T, Sluiter M H F. Nano-indentation hardness and elastic moduli of bulk single-crystal AlN. Jpn J Appl Phys, 2002, 41(7R), 4620

[27]

Kuball M, Hayes J M, Prins A D, et al. Raman scattering studies on single-crystalline bulk AlN under high pressures. Appl Phys Lett, 2001, 78(6), 724

[28]

Tang Y, Cong H, Li F, et al. Synthesis and photoluminescent property of AlN nanobelt array. Diamond Relat Mater, 2007, 16(3), 537

[29]

Cao Y G, Chen X L, Lan Y C, et al. Blue emission and Raman scattering spectrum from AlN nanocrystalline powders. J Cryst Growth, 2000, 213(1/2), 198

[30]

Wang J, Song E, Yang C, et al. Fabrication and whispering gallery resonance of self-rolled up gallium nitride microcavities. Thin Solid Films, 2017, 627, 77

[31]

Wang J, Zhang T, Huang G, et al. Tubular oxide microcavity with high-indexcontrast walls: Mie scattering theory and 3D confinement of resonant modes. Opt Express, 2012, 20(17), 18555

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J Y Yang, Y Wang, L Wang, Z A Tian, Z F Di, Y F Mei, Tubular/helical architecture construction based on rolled-up AlN nanomembranes and resonance as optical microcavity[J]. J. Semicond., 2020, 41(4): 042601. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/4/042601.

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Manuscript received: 04 September 2019 Manuscript revised: 30 October 2019 Online: Uncorrected proof: 02 April 2020 Published: 10 April 2020

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