J. Semicond. > Volume 41?>?Issue 3?> Article Number: 032101

Epitaxial graphene gas sensors on SiC substrate with high sensitivity

Cui Yu 1, , Qingbin Liu 1, , Zezhao He 1, , Xuedong Gao 1, , Enxiu Wu 2, , Jianchao Guo 1, , Chuangjie Zhou 1, and Zhihong Feng 1, ,

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Abstract: 2D material of graphene has inspired huge interest in fabricating of solid state gas sensors. In this work, epitaxial graphene, quasi-free-standing graphene, and CVD epitaxial graphene samples on SiC substrates are used to fabricate gas sensors. Defects are introduced into graphene using SF6 plasma treatment to improve the performance of the gas sensors. The epitaxial graphene shows high sensitivity to NO2 with response of 105.1% to 4 ppm NO2 and detection limit of 1 ppb. The higher sensitivity of epitaxial graphene compared to quasi-free-standing graphene, and CVD epitaxial graphene was found to be related to the different doping types of the samples.

Abstract: 2D material of graphene has inspired huge interest in fabricating of solid state gas sensors. In this work, epitaxial graphene, quasi-free-standing graphene, and CVD epitaxial graphene samples on SiC substrates are used to fabricate gas sensors. Defects are introduced into graphene using SF6 plasma treatment to improve the performance of the gas sensors. The epitaxial graphene shows high sensitivity to NO2 with response of 105.1% to 4 ppm NO2 and detection limit of 1 ppb. The higher sensitivity of epitaxial graphene compared to quasi-free-standing graphene, and CVD epitaxial graphene was found to be related to the different doping types of the samples.





References:

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Rumyantsev S, Liu G, Shur M S, et al. Selective gas sensing with a single pristine graphene transistor. Nano Lett, 2012, 12, 2294

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Lee G, Yang G, Cho A, et al. Defect-engineered graphene chemical sensors with ultrahigh sensitivity. Phys Chem Chem Phys, 2016, 18, 14198

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Singh A K, Uddin M A, Tolson J T, et al. Electrically tunable molecular doping of graphene. Appl Phys Lett, 2013, 102, 043101

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Toda K, Furue R, Hayami S. Recent progress in applications of graphene oxide for gas sensing: A review. Anal Chim Acta, 2015, 878, 43

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Li W, Geng X, Guo Y, et al. Reduced graphene oxide electrically contacted graphene sensor for highly sensitive nitric oxide detection. ACS Nano, 2011, 5, 6955

[11]

Nomani M W K, Shishir R, Qazi M, et al. Highly sensitive and selective detection of NO2 using epitaxial graphene on 6H-SiC. Sens Actuators B, 2010, 150, 301

[12]

Pearce R, Iakimov T, Andersson M, et al. Epitaxially grown graphene based gas sensors for ultra sensitive NO2 detection. Sens Actuators B, 2011, 155, 451

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Iezhokin I, Offermans P, Brongersma S H, et al. High sensitive quasi freestanding epitaxial graphene gas sensor on 6H-SiC. Appl Phys Lett, 2013, 103, 053514

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Lebedev A A, Lebedev S P, Novikov S N, et al. Supersensitive graphene-based gas sensor. Tech Phys, 2016, 61, 3, 453

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Novikov S, Lebedeva N, Satrapinski A. Graphene based sensor for environmental monitoring of NO2. J Sen, 2015, 2015, 7

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Wetchakun K, Samerjai T, Tamaekong N, et al. Semiconducting metal oxides as sensors for environmentally hazardous gases. Sens Actuators B, 2011, 160, 580

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Zhang T, Mubeen S, Myung N V, et al. Recent progress in carbon nanotube-based gas sensors. Nanotechnology, 2008, 19, 332001

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Kumar B, Min K, Bashirzadeh M, et al. The role of external defects in chemical sensing of graphene field-effect transistors. Nano Lett, 2013, 13, 1962

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Chung M G, Kim D H, Lee H M, et al. Graphene-based composite materials for chemical sensor application. Sens Actuators B, 2012, 166/16, 172

[20]

Yu C, Li J, Liu Q B, et al. Buffer layer induced band gap and surface low energy optical phonon scattering in epitaxial graphene on SiC (0001). Appl Phys Lett, 2013, 102, 013107

[21]

Yu C, Liu Q B, Li J, et al. Preparation and electrical transport properties of quasi free standing bilayer graphene on SiC (0001) substrate by H intercalation. Appl Phys Lett, 2014, 105, 183105

[22]

Pankratov O, Hensel S, Bockstedte M. Electron spectrum of epitaxial graphene monolayers. Phys Rev B, 2010, 82, 121416

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Ristein J, Mammadov S, Seyller T. Origin of doping in quasi-free-standing graphene on silicon carbide. Phys Rev Lett, 2012, 108, 246104

[24]

Ciuk T, Strupinski W. Charge carrier concentration and offset voltage in quasi-free-standingmonolayer chemical vapor deposition graphene on SiC. Carbon, 2015, 93, 1042

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Ciuk T, Caban P, Strupinski W. Statistics of epitaxial graphene for Hall effect sensors. Carbon, 2016, 101, 431e438

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Ferrari A C. Raman spectroscopy of graphene and graphite: Disorder, electron–phonon coupling, doping and nonadiabatic effects. Solid State Commun, 2007, 143, 47

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Choi Y R, Yoon Y G, Choi K S, et al. Role of oxygen functional groups in graphene oxide for reversible room-temperature NO2 sensing. Carbon, 2015, 91, 178

[28]

Portail M, Michon A, Vezian S, et al. Growth mode and electric properties of graphene and graphitic phase grown by argon-propane assisted CVD on 3C-SiC/Si and 6H-SiC. J Cryst Growth, 2012, 349, 27

[29]

Waldmann D, Jobst J, Speck F, et al. Bottom-gated epitaxial graphene. Nat Mater, 2011, 10, 357

[30]

Zhang Y H, Chen Y B, Zhou K G, et al. Improving gas sensing properties of graphene by introducing dopants and defects: a first-principles study. Nanotechnology, 2009, 20, 185504

[1]

Schedin F, Geim A K, Morozov S V, et al. Detection of individual gas molecules adsorbed on graphene. Nat Mater, 2007, 6, 652

[2]

Geim A K, Novoselov K S. The rise of graphene. Nat Mater, 2007, 6, 183

[3]

Novoselov K S, Falko V I, Colombo L, et al. A roadmap for graphene. Nature, 2012, 490, 192

[4]

Varghese S S, Lonkar S, Singh K K, et al. Recent advances in graphene based gas sensors. Sens Actuators B, 2015, 218, 160

[5]

Dan Y, Lu Y, Kybert N J, et al. Intrinsic response of graphene vapor sensors. Nano Lett, 2009, 9, 1472

[6]

Rumyantsev S, Liu G, Shur M S, et al. Selective gas sensing with a single pristine graphene transistor. Nano Lett, 2012, 12, 2294

[7]

Lee G, Yang G, Cho A, et al. Defect-engineered graphene chemical sensors with ultrahigh sensitivity. Phys Chem Chem Phys, 2016, 18, 14198

[8]

Singh A K, Uddin M A, Tolson J T, et al. Electrically tunable molecular doping of graphene. Appl Phys Lett, 2013, 102, 043101

[9]

Toda K, Furue R, Hayami S. Recent progress in applications of graphene oxide for gas sensing: A review. Anal Chim Acta, 2015, 878, 43

[10]

Li W, Geng X, Guo Y, et al. Reduced graphene oxide electrically contacted graphene sensor for highly sensitive nitric oxide detection. ACS Nano, 2011, 5, 6955

[11]

Nomani M W K, Shishir R, Qazi M, et al. Highly sensitive and selective detection of NO2 using epitaxial graphene on 6H-SiC. Sens Actuators B, 2010, 150, 301

[12]

Pearce R, Iakimov T, Andersson M, et al. Epitaxially grown graphene based gas sensors for ultra sensitive NO2 detection. Sens Actuators B, 2011, 155, 451

[13]

Iezhokin I, Offermans P, Brongersma S H, et al. High sensitive quasi freestanding epitaxial graphene gas sensor on 6H-SiC. Appl Phys Lett, 2013, 103, 053514

[14]

Lebedev A A, Lebedev S P, Novikov S N, et al. Supersensitive graphene-based gas sensor. Tech Phys, 2016, 61, 3, 453

[15]

Novikov S, Lebedeva N, Satrapinski A. Graphene based sensor for environmental monitoring of NO2. J Sen, 2015, 2015, 7

[16]

Wetchakun K, Samerjai T, Tamaekong N, et al. Semiconducting metal oxides as sensors for environmentally hazardous gases. Sens Actuators B, 2011, 160, 580

[17]

Zhang T, Mubeen S, Myung N V, et al. Recent progress in carbon nanotube-based gas sensors. Nanotechnology, 2008, 19, 332001

[18]

Kumar B, Min K, Bashirzadeh M, et al. The role of external defects in chemical sensing of graphene field-effect transistors. Nano Lett, 2013, 13, 1962

[19]

Chung M G, Kim D H, Lee H M, et al. Graphene-based composite materials for chemical sensor application. Sens Actuators B, 2012, 166/16, 172

[20]

Yu C, Li J, Liu Q B, et al. Buffer layer induced band gap and surface low energy optical phonon scattering in epitaxial graphene on SiC (0001). Appl Phys Lett, 2013, 102, 013107

[21]

Yu C, Liu Q B, Li J, et al. Preparation and electrical transport properties of quasi free standing bilayer graphene on SiC (0001) substrate by H intercalation. Appl Phys Lett, 2014, 105, 183105

[22]

Pankratov O, Hensel S, Bockstedte M. Electron spectrum of epitaxial graphene monolayers. Phys Rev B, 2010, 82, 121416

[23]

Ristein J, Mammadov S, Seyller T. Origin of doping in quasi-free-standing graphene on silicon carbide. Phys Rev Lett, 2012, 108, 246104

[24]

Ciuk T, Strupinski W. Charge carrier concentration and offset voltage in quasi-free-standingmonolayer chemical vapor deposition graphene on SiC. Carbon, 2015, 93, 1042

[25]

Ciuk T, Caban P, Strupinski W. Statistics of epitaxial graphene for Hall effect sensors. Carbon, 2016, 101, 431e438

[26]

Ferrari A C. Raman spectroscopy of graphene and graphite: Disorder, electron–phonon coupling, doping and nonadiabatic effects. Solid State Commun, 2007, 143, 47

[27]

Choi Y R, Yoon Y G, Choi K S, et al. Role of oxygen functional groups in graphene oxide for reversible room-temperature NO2 sensing. Carbon, 2015, 91, 178

[28]

Portail M, Michon A, Vezian S, et al. Growth mode and electric properties of graphene and graphitic phase grown by argon-propane assisted CVD on 3C-SiC/Si and 6H-SiC. J Cryst Growth, 2012, 349, 27

[29]

Waldmann D, Jobst J, Speck F, et al. Bottom-gated epitaxial graphene. Nat Mater, 2011, 10, 357

[30]

Zhang Y H, Chen Y B, Zhou K G, et al. Improving gas sensing properties of graphene by introducing dopants and defects: a first-principles study. Nanotechnology, 2009, 20, 185504

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C Yu, Q B Liu, Z Z He, X D Gao, E X Wu, J C Guo, C J Zhou, Z H Feng, Epitaxial graphene gas sensors on SiC substrate with high sensitivity[J]. J. Semicond., 2020, 41(3): 032101. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/3/032101.

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History

Manuscript received: 12 August 2019 Manuscript revised: 10 December 2019 Online: Accepted Manuscript: 14 January 2020 Uncorrected proof: 20 January 2020 Published: 01 March 2020

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