J. Semicond. > Volume 41?>?Issue 5?> Article Number: 051204

Perovskite semiconductors for direct X-ray detection and imaging

Yirong Su ?, , Wenbo Ma ?, and Yang (Michael) Yang ,

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Abstract: Halide perovskites have emerged as the next generation of optoelectronic materials and their remarkable performances have been attractive in the fields of solar cells, light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, etc. In addition, halide perovskites have been reported as an attractive new class of X-ray direct detecting materials recently, owning to the strong X-ray stopping capacity, excellent carrier transport, high sensitivity, and cost-effective manufacturing. Meanwhile, perovskite based direct X-ray imagers have been successfully demonstrated as well. In this review article, we firstly introduced some fundamental principles of direct X-ray detection and imaging, and summarized the advances of perovskite materials for these purposes and finally put forward some needful and feasible directions.

Key words: halide perovskitesX-ray detectionoptoelectronic materials

Abstract: Halide perovskites have emerged as the next generation of optoelectronic materials and their remarkable performances have been attractive in the fields of solar cells, light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, etc. In addition, halide perovskites have been reported as an attractive new class of X-ray direct detecting materials recently, owning to the strong X-ray stopping capacity, excellent carrier transport, high sensitivity, and cost-effective manufacturing. Meanwhile, perovskite based direct X-ray imagers have been successfully demonstrated as well. In this review article, we firstly introduced some fundamental principles of direct X-ray detection and imaging, and summarized the advances of perovskite materials for these purposes and finally put forward some needful and feasible directions.

Key words: halide perovskitesX-ray detectionoptoelectronic materials



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Haff R P, Toyofuku N. X-ray detection of defects and contaminants in the food industry. Sens Instrum Food Quality Safety, 2008, 2, 262

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Zheng X, Chen B, Dai J, et al. Defect passivation in hybrid perovskite solar cells using quaternary ammonium halide anions and cations. Nat Energy, 2017, 2, 17102

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Xiao Z, Kerner R A, Zhao L, et al. Efficient perovskite light-emitting diodes featuring nanometre-sized crystallites. Nat Photonics, 2017, 11, 108

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Dou L, Yang Y M, You J, et al. Solution-processed hybrid perovskite photodetectors with high detectivity. Nat Commun, 2014, 5, 5404

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Wei H, Fang Y, Mulligan P, et al. Sensitive X-ray detectors made of methylammonium lead tribromide perovskite single crystals. Nat Photonics, 2016, 10, 333

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Pan W, Wu H, Luo J, et al. Cs2AgBiBr6 single-crystal X-ray detectors with a low detection limit. Nat Photonics, 2017, 11, 726

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Zhuang R, Wang X, Ma W, et al. Highly sensitive X-ray detector made of layered perovskite-like (NH4)3Bi2I9 single crystal with anisotropic response. Nat Photonics, 2019, 13, 602

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Wei W, Zhang Y, Xu Q, et al. Monolithic integration of hybrid perovskite single crystals with heterogenous substrate for highly sensitive X-ray imaging. Nat Photonics, 2017, 11, 315

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Wei H, Huang J. Halide lead perovskites for ionizing radiation detection. Nat Commun, 2019, 10, 1066

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Street R, Ready S, Van Schuylenbergh K, et al. Comparison of PbI2 and HgI2 for direct detection active matrix X-ray image sensors. J Appl Phys, 2002, 91, 3345

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Schieber M, Hermon H, Zuck A, et al. Thick films of X-ray polycrystalline mercuric iodide detectors. J Cryst Growth, 2001, 225, 118

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Zentai G, Partain L D, Pavlyuchkova R, et al. Mercuric iodide and lead iodide X-ray detectors for radiographic and fluoroscopic medical imaging In: Medical Imaging 2003: Physics of Medical Imaging. International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2003, 77

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Yun M S, Cho S H, Lee R, et al. Investigation of PbI2 film fabricated by a new sedimentation method as an X-ray conversion material. Jpn J Appl Phys, 2010, 49, 041801

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Shah K, Street R, Dmitriyev Y, et al. X-ray imaging with PbI2-based a-Si: H flat panel detectors. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res A, 2001, 458, 140

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Simon M, Ford R, Franklin A, et al. Analysis of lead oxide (PbO) layers for direct conversion X-ray detection. IEEE Symposium Conference Record Nuclear Science, 2004, 4268

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Destefano N, Mulato M. Influence of multi-depositions on the final properties of thermally evaporated TlBr films. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res A, 2010, 624, 114

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Hitomi K, Kikuchi Y, Shoji T, et al. Improvement of energy resolutions in TlBr detectors. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res A, 2009, 607, 112

[45]

Brenner T M, Egger D A, Kronik L, et al. Hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites: low-cost semiconductors with intriguing charge-transport properties. Nat Rev Mater, 2016, 1, 15007

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de Arquer F P G, Armin A, Meredith P, et al. Solution-processed semiconductors for next-generation photodetectors. Nat Rev Mater, 2017, 2, 16100

[47]

Kasap S. Low-cost X-ray detectors. Nat Photonics, 2015, 9, 420

[48]

Lang F, Nickel N H, Bundesmann J, et al. Radiation hardness and self-healing of perovskite solar cells. Adv Mater, 2016, 28, 8726

[49]

Yang S, Xu Z, Xue S, et al. Organohalide lead perovskites: more stable than glass under gamma-ray radiation. Adv Mater, 2019, 31, 1805547

[50]

Huang J, Yuan Y, Shao Y, et al. Understanding the physical properties of hybrid perovskites for photovoltaic applications. Nat Rev Mater, 2017, 2, 17042

[51]

Lang F, Shargaieva O, Brus V V, et al. Influence of radiation on the properties and the stability of hybrid perovskites. Adv Mater, 2018, 30, 1702905

[52]

Dong Q, Fang Y, Shao Y, et al. Electron–hole diffusion lengths > 175 μm in solution-grown CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals. Science, 2015, 347, 967

[53]

Ye F, Lin H, Wu H, et al. High-quality cuboid CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals for high performance X-ray and photon detectors. Adv Funct Mater, 2019, 29, 1806984

[54]

Saidaminov M I, Abdelhady A L, Murali B, et al. High-quality bulk hybrid perovskite single crystals within minutes by inverse temperature crystallization. Nat Commun, 2015, 6, 1

[55]

Shrestha S, Fischer R, Matt G J, et al. High-performance direct conversion X-ray detectors based on sintered hybrid lead triiodide perovskite wafers. Nat Photonics, 2017, 11, 436

[56]

Pan W, Yang B, Niu G, et al. Hot-pressed CsPbBr3 quasi-monocrystalline film for sensitive direct X-ray detection. Adv Mater, 2019, 31, 1904405

[57]

Kasap S. X-ray sensitivity of photoconductors: application to stabilized a-Se. J Phys D, 2000, 33, 2853

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Heiss W, Brabec C. X-ray imaging: Perovskites target X-ray detection. Nat Photonics, 2016, 10, 288

[59]

Wang X, Zhao D, Qiu Y, et al. PIN diodes array made of perovskite single crystal for X-ray imaging. Phys Status Solidi RRL, 2018, 12, 1800380

[60]

Huang Y, Qiao L, Jiang Y, et al. A-site cation engineering for highly efficient MAPbI3 single-crystal X-ray detector. Angew Chem Int Ed, 2019, 58, 17834

[61]

Eperon G E, Paterno G M, Sutton R J, et al. Inorganic caesium lead iodide perovskite solar cells. J Mater Chem A, 2015, 3, 19688

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Liu J, Shabbir B, Wang C, et al. Flexible, printable soft-X-ray detectors based on all-inorganic perovskite quantum dots. Adv Mater, 2019, 31(30), 1901644

[63]

Yuan W, Niu G, Xian Y, et al. In situ regulating the order–disorder phase transition in Cs2AgBiBr6 single crystal toward the application in an X-ray detector. Adv Funct Mater, 2019, 29, 1900234

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Zhang B, Liu X, Xiao B, et al. High performance X-ray detection based on one-dimensional inorganic halide perovskite CsPbI3. J Phys Chem Lett, 2020, 11, 43

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[67]

Xu Z, Liu X, Li Y, et al. Exploring lead-free hybrid double perovskite crystals of (BA)2CsAgBiBr7 with large mobility-lifetime product toward X-ray detection. Angew Chem Int Ed, 2019, 58, 15757

[68]

Yin L, Wu H, Pan W, et al. Controlled cooling for synthesis of Cs2AgBiBr6 single crystals and its application for X-ray detection. Adv Opt Mater, 2019, 7, 1900491

[69]

Yao L, Niu G, Yin L, et al. Bismuth halide perovskite derivatives for direct X-ray detection. J Mater Chem C, 2020, 8, 1239

[70]

Tao K, Li Y, Ji C, et al. A lead-free hybrid iodide with quantitative response to X-ray radiation. Chem Mater, 2019, 31, 5927

[71]

Rikner G, Grusell E. Effects of radiation damage on p-type silicon detectors. Phys Med Biol, 1983, 28, 1261

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Bellazzini R, Spandre G, Brez A, et al. Chromatic X-ray imaging with a fine pitch CdTe sensor coupled to a large area photon counting pixel ASIC. J Instrum, 2013, 8, C02028

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Ivanov Y M, Kanevsky V, Dvoryankin V, et al. The possibilities of using semi-insulating CdTe crystals as detecting material for X-ray imaging radiography. Phys Status Solidi C, 2003, 0(3), 840

[74]

Zheng X, Zhao W, Wang P, et al. Ultrasensitive and stable X-ray detection using zero-dimensional lead-free perovskites. J Energy Chem, 2020, 49, 299

[75]

Büchele P, Richter M, Tedde S F, et al. X-ray imaging with scintillator-sensitized hybrid organic photodetectors. Nat Photonics, 2015, 9, 843

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Samei E, Flynn M J, Reimann D A. A method for measuring the presampled MTF of digital radiographic systems using an edge test device. Med Phys, 1998, 25, 102

[77]

Hoheisel M, Batz L, Mertelmeier T, et al. Modulation transfer function of a selenium-based digital mammography system. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci, 2006, 53, 1118

[78]

Kabir M Z, Kasap S. Modulation transfer function of photoconductive X-ray image detectors: effects of charge carrier trapping. J Phys D, 2003, 36, 2352

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Hunter D M, Belev G, Kasap S, et al. Measured and calculated K-fluorescence effects on the MTF of an amorphous-selenium based CCD X-ray detector. Med Phys, 2012, 39, 608

[80]

Kozorezov A G, Wigmore J, Owens A, et al. The effect of carrier diffusion on the characteristics of semiconductor imaging arrays. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res A, 2004, 531, 52

[1]

Spahn M. X-ray detectors in medical imaging. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res A, 2013, 731, 57

[2]

Van Eijk C W. Inorganic scintillators in medical imaging. Phys Med Biol, 2002, 47, R85

[3]

Duan X, Cheng J, Zhang L, et al. X-ray cargo container inspection system with few-view projection imaging. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res A, 2009, 598, 439

[4]

Haff R P, Toyofuku N. X-ray detection of defects and contaminants in the food industry. Sens Instrum Food Quality Safety, 2008, 2, 262

[5]

Chapman H N, Fromme P, Barty A, et al. Femtosecond X-ray protein nanocrystallography. Nature, 2011, 470, 73

[6]

Nielsen J A, McMorrow D. Elements of modern X-ray physics. Wiley, 2011

[7]

Moses W W. Scintillator requirements for medical imaging. LBNL Publications, 1999

[8]

Lin E C. Radiation risk from medical imaging. In: Mayo Clinic Proceedings. Elsevier, 2010, 1142

[9]

Knoll G F. Radiation detection and measurement. John Wiley & Sons, 2010

[10]

Rowlands J A. Medical imaging: Material change for X-ray detectors. Nature, 2017, 550, 47

[11]

Kasap S, Frey J B, Belev G, et al. Amorphous and polycrystalline photoconductors for direct conversion flat panel X-ray image sensors. Sensors, 2011, 11, 5112

[12]

Zheng X, Chen B, Dai J, et al. Defect passivation in hybrid perovskite solar cells using quaternary ammonium halide anions and cations. Nat Energy, 2017, 2, 17102

[13]

Xiao Z, Kerner R A, Zhao L, et al. Efficient perovskite light-emitting diodes featuring nanometre-sized crystallites. Nat Photonics, 2017, 11, 108

[14]

Saliba M, Wood S M, Patel J B, et al. Structured organic–inorganic perovskite toward a distributed feedback laser. Adv Mater, 2016, 28, 923

[15]

Dou L, Yang Y M, You J, et al. Solution-processed hybrid perovskite photodetectors with high detectivity. Nat Commun, 2014, 5, 5404

[16]

Wei H, Fang Y, Mulligan P, et al. Sensitive X-ray detectors made of methylammonium lead tribromide perovskite single crystals. Nat Photonics, 2016, 10, 333

[17]

Pan W, Wu H, Luo J, et al. Cs2AgBiBr6 single-crystal X-ray detectors with a low detection limit. Nat Photonics, 2017, 11, 726

[18]

Zhuang R, Wang X, Ma W, et al. Highly sensitive X-ray detector made of layered perovskite-like (NH4)3Bi2I9 single crystal with anisotropic response. Nat Photonics, 2019, 13, 602

[19]

Wei W, Zhang Y, Xu Q, et al. Monolithic integration of hybrid perovskite single crystals with heterogenous substrate for highly sensitive X-ray imaging. Nat Photonics, 2017, 11, 315

[20]

Yakunin S, Sytnyk M, Kriegner D, et al. Detection of X-ray photons by solution-processed lead halide perovskites. Nat Photonics, 2015, 9, 444

[21]

Kim Y C, Kim K H, Son D Y, et al. Printable organometallic perovskite enables large-area, low-dose X-ray imaging. Nature, 2017, 550, 87

[22]

Martin J E. Physics for radiation protection: a handbook. John Wiley & Sons, 2006

[23]

Wei H, Huang J. Halide lead perovskites for ionizing radiation detection. Nat Commun, 2019, 10, 1066

[24]

Devanathan R, Corrales L R, Gao F, et al. Signal variance in gamma-ray detectors—A review. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res A, 2006, 565, 637

[25]

Kabir M. Effects of charge carrier trapping on polycrystalline PbO X-ray imaging detectors. J Appl Phys, 2008, 104, 074506

[26]

Klein C A. Bandgap dependence and related features of radiation ionization energies in semiconductors. J Appl Phys, 1968, 39, 2029

[27]

Alig R, Bloom S. Electron-hole-pair creation energies in semiconductors. Phys Rev Lett, 1975, 35, 1522

[28]

van Heerden P J. The crystalcounter. Noord-Holl Uitg Mij, 1945

[29]

McKay K G. A. germanium counter. Phys Rev, 1949, 76, 1537

[30]

Guerra M, Manso M, Longelin S, et al. Performance of three different Si X-ray detectors for portable XRF spectrometers in cultural heritage applications. J Instrum, 2012, 7, C10004

[31]

Owens A, Peacock A. Compound semiconductor radiation detectors. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res A, 2004, 531, 18

[32]

Del Sordo S, Abbene L, Caroli E, et al. Progress in the development of CdTe and CdZnTe semiconductor radiation detectors for astrophysical and medical applications. Sensors, 2009, 9, 3491

[33]

Luke P, Rossington C, Wesela M. Low energy X-ray response of Ge detectors with amorphous Ge entrance contacts. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci, 1994, 41, 1074

[34]

Szeles C. CdZnTe and CdTe materials for X-ray and gamma ray radiation detector applications. Phys Status Solidi B, 2004, 241, 783

[35]

Zentai G, Schieber M, Partain L, et al. Large area mercuric iodide and lead iodide X-ray detectors for medical and non-destructive industrial imaging. J Cryst Growth, 2005, 275, e1327

[36]

Schieber M M, Zuck A, Melekhov L, et al. High-flux X-ray response of composite mercuric iodide detectors. In: Hard X-Ray, Gamma-Ray, and Neutron Detector Physics. International Society for Optics and Photonics, 1999, 296

[37]

Street R, Ready S, Van Schuylenbergh K, et al. Comparison of PbI2 and HgI2 for direct detection active matrix X-ray image sensors. J Appl Phys, 2002, 91, 3345

[38]

Schieber M, Hermon H, Zuck A, et al. Thick films of X-ray polycrystalline mercuric iodide detectors. J Cryst Growth, 2001, 225, 118

[39]

Zentai G, Partain L D, Pavlyuchkova R, et al. Mercuric iodide and lead iodide X-ray detectors for radiographic and fluoroscopic medical imaging In: Medical Imaging 2003: Physics of Medical Imaging. International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2003, 77

[40]

Yun M S, Cho S H, Lee R, et al. Investigation of PbI2 film fabricated by a new sedimentation method as an X-ray conversion material. Jpn J Appl Phys, 2010, 49, 041801

[41]

Shah K, Street R, Dmitriyev Y, et al. X-ray imaging with PbI2-based a-Si: H flat panel detectors. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res A, 2001, 458, 140

[42]

Simon M, Ford R, Franklin A, et al. Analysis of lead oxide (PbO) layers for direct conversion X-ray detection. IEEE Symposium Conference Record Nuclear Science, 2004, 4268

[43]

Destefano N, Mulato M. Influence of multi-depositions on the final properties of thermally evaporated TlBr films. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res A, 2010, 624, 114

[44]

Hitomi K, Kikuchi Y, Shoji T, et al. Improvement of energy resolutions in TlBr detectors. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res A, 2009, 607, 112

[45]

Brenner T M, Egger D A, Kronik L, et al. Hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites: low-cost semiconductors with intriguing charge-transport properties. Nat Rev Mater, 2016, 1, 15007

[46]

de Arquer F P G, Armin A, Meredith P, et al. Solution-processed semiconductors for next-generation photodetectors. Nat Rev Mater, 2017, 2, 16100

[47]

Kasap S. Low-cost X-ray detectors. Nat Photonics, 2015, 9, 420

[48]

Lang F, Nickel N H, Bundesmann J, et al. Radiation hardness and self-healing of perovskite solar cells. Adv Mater, 2016, 28, 8726

[49]

Yang S, Xu Z, Xue S, et al. Organohalide lead perovskites: more stable than glass under gamma-ray radiation. Adv Mater, 2019, 31, 1805547

[50]

Huang J, Yuan Y, Shao Y, et al. Understanding the physical properties of hybrid perovskites for photovoltaic applications. Nat Rev Mater, 2017, 2, 17042

[51]

Lang F, Shargaieva O, Brus V V, et al. Influence of radiation on the properties and the stability of hybrid perovskites. Adv Mater, 2018, 30, 1702905

[52]

Dong Q, Fang Y, Shao Y, et al. Electron–hole diffusion lengths > 175 μm in solution-grown CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals. Science, 2015, 347, 967

[53]

Ye F, Lin H, Wu H, et al. High-quality cuboid CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals for high performance X-ray and photon detectors. Adv Funct Mater, 2019, 29, 1806984

[54]

Saidaminov M I, Abdelhady A L, Murali B, et al. High-quality bulk hybrid perovskite single crystals within minutes by inverse temperature crystallization. Nat Commun, 2015, 6, 1

[55]

Shrestha S, Fischer R, Matt G J, et al. High-performance direct conversion X-ray detectors based on sintered hybrid lead triiodide perovskite wafers. Nat Photonics, 2017, 11, 436

[56]

Pan W, Yang B, Niu G, et al. Hot-pressed CsPbBr3 quasi-monocrystalline film for sensitive direct X-ray detection. Adv Mater, 2019, 31, 1904405

[57]

Kasap S. X-ray sensitivity of photoconductors: application to stabilized a-Se. J Phys D, 2000, 33, 2853

[58]

Heiss W, Brabec C. X-ray imaging: Perovskites target X-ray detection. Nat Photonics, 2016, 10, 288

[59]

Wang X, Zhao D, Qiu Y, et al. PIN diodes array made of perovskite single crystal for X-ray imaging. Phys Status Solidi RRL, 2018, 12, 1800380

[60]

Huang Y, Qiao L, Jiang Y, et al. A-site cation engineering for highly efficient MAPbI3 single-crystal X-ray detector. Angew Chem Int Ed, 2019, 58, 17834

[61]

Eperon G E, Paterno G M, Sutton R J, et al. Inorganic caesium lead iodide perovskite solar cells. J Mater Chem A, 2015, 3, 19688

[62]

Liu J, Shabbir B, Wang C, et al. Flexible, printable soft-X-ray detectors based on all-inorganic perovskite quantum dots. Adv Mater, 2019, 31(30), 1901644

[63]

Yuan W, Niu G, Xian Y, et al. In situ regulating the order–disorder phase transition in Cs2AgBiBr6 single crystal toward the application in an X-ray detector. Adv Funct Mater, 2019, 29, 1900234

[64]

Zhang B, Liu X, Xiao B, et al. High performance X-ray detection based on one-dimensional inorganic halide perovskite CsPbI3. J Phys Chem Lett, 2020, 11, 43

[65]

Wu C, Zhang Q, Liu G, et al. From Pb to Bi: a promising family of Pb-free optoelectronic materials and devices. Adv Energy Mater, 2019, 10, 1902496

[66]

Steele J A, Pan W, Martin C, et al. Photophysical pathways in highly sensitive Cs2AgBiBr6 double-perovskite single-crystal X-ray detectors. Adv Mater, 2018, 30, 1804450

[67]

Xu Z, Liu X, Li Y, et al. Exploring lead-free hybrid double perovskite crystals of (BA)2CsAgBiBr7 with large mobility-lifetime product toward X-ray detection. Angew Chem Int Ed, 2019, 58, 15757

[68]

Yin L, Wu H, Pan W, et al. Controlled cooling for synthesis of Cs2AgBiBr6 single crystals and its application for X-ray detection. Adv Opt Mater, 2019, 7, 1900491

[69]

Yao L, Niu G, Yin L, et al. Bismuth halide perovskite derivatives for direct X-ray detection. J Mater Chem C, 2020, 8, 1239

[70]

Tao K, Li Y, Ji C, et al. A lead-free hybrid iodide with quantitative response to X-ray radiation. Chem Mater, 2019, 31, 5927

[71]

Rikner G, Grusell E. Effects of radiation damage on p-type silicon detectors. Phys Med Biol, 1983, 28, 1261

[72]

Bellazzini R, Spandre G, Brez A, et al. Chromatic X-ray imaging with a fine pitch CdTe sensor coupled to a large area photon counting pixel ASIC. J Instrum, 2013, 8, C02028

[73]

Ivanov Y M, Kanevsky V, Dvoryankin V, et al. The possibilities of using semi-insulating CdTe crystals as detecting material for X-ray imaging radiography. Phys Status Solidi C, 2003, 0(3), 840

[74]

Zheng X, Zhao W, Wang P, et al. Ultrasensitive and stable X-ray detection using zero-dimensional lead-free perovskites. J Energy Chem, 2020, 49, 299

[75]

Büchele P, Richter M, Tedde S F, et al. X-ray imaging with scintillator-sensitized hybrid organic photodetectors. Nat Photonics, 2015, 9, 843

[76]

Samei E, Flynn M J, Reimann D A. A method for measuring the presampled MTF of digital radiographic systems using an edge test device. Med Phys, 1998, 25, 102

[77]

Hoheisel M, Batz L, Mertelmeier T, et al. Modulation transfer function of a selenium-based digital mammography system. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci, 2006, 53, 1118

[78]

Kabir M Z, Kasap S. Modulation transfer function of photoconductive X-ray image detectors: effects of charge carrier trapping. J Phys D, 2003, 36, 2352

[79]

Hunter D M, Belev G, Kasap S, et al. Measured and calculated K-fluorescence effects on the MTF of an amorphous-selenium based CCD X-ray detector. Med Phys, 2012, 39, 608

[80]

Kozorezov A G, Wigmore J, Owens A, et al. The effect of carrier diffusion on the characteristics of semiconductor imaging arrays. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res A, 2004, 531, 52

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Y R Su, W B Ma, Y Yang, Perovskite semiconductors for direct X-ray detection and imaging[J]. J. Semicond., 2020, 41(5): 051204. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/5/051204.

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Manuscript received: 19 March 2020 Manuscript revised: 27 April 2020 Online: Accepted Manuscript: 06 May 2020 Uncorrected proof: 06 May 2020 Published: 13 May 2020

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